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1230 __ AUDITEUR - AUDITOIRE - AUDITORIUM — etymology
Comment : AUDITORIUM : 1727, from L. auditorium "lecture room," lit. "place where something is heard," neuter of auditorius (adj.) "of or for hearing," from auditus, pp. of audire "to hear".AUDIENCE : late 14c., "the action of hearing," from O.Fr. audience, from L. audentia "a hearing, listening," from audientum (nom. audiens), prp. of audire "to hear," from PIE compound *au-dh- "to perceive physically, grasp," from base *au- "to perceive" (cf. Gk. aisthanesthai "to feel;" Skt. avih, Avestan avish "openly, evidently;" O.C.S. javiti "to reveal"). Meaning "formal hearing or reception" is from late 14c.; that of "persons within hearing range, assembly of listeners" is from early 15c. (Fr. audience retains only the older senses). Sense transferred 1855 to "readers of a book." Audience-participation (adj.) first recorded 1940.An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theaters, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. The term is taken from Latin (from audītōrium, from audītōrius (“‘pertaining to hearing’”)); the concept is taken from the Greek auditorium, which had a series of semi-circular seating shelves in the theatre, divided by broad 'belts', called diazomata, with eleven rows of seats between each.Modern Auditorium structure.The audience in a modern theatre are usually separated from the performers by the proscenium arch, although other types of stage are common. The price charged for seats in each part of the auditorium (known colloquially as the house) usually varies according to the quality of the view of the stage. The seating areas can include some or all of the following: 1) Stalls or arena: the lower flat area, usually below or at the same level as the stage. 2) Balconies or galleries: one or more raised seating platforms towards the rear of the auditorium. In larger theatres, multiple levels are stacked vertically above or behind the stalls. The first level is usually called the dress circle or grand circle. The highest platform, or upper circle is sometimes known as the gods, especially in large opera houses, where the seats can be very high and a long distance from the stage. 3) Boxes: typically placed immediately to the front, side and above the level of the stage. They are often separate rooms with an open viewing area which typically seat five people or less. These seats are typically considered the most prestigious of the house. A state box or royal box is sometimes provided for dignitaries. The auditorium is the part of the theatre designed to accommodate the audience. Auditorium can also describe the entire theatre, and has been in use as a word since the 18th century, although there were other words with the same meaning before that. Incidentally, the plural can be either auditoriums or auditoria. (Compiled from various sources)AUDITORIUM, as the name implies, is any place for hearing. It was the practice among the Romans for poets and others to read their compositions to their friends, who were sometimes called the auditorium (Plin. Ep. iv. 7) ; but the word was also used to express any place in which any thing was heard, and under the empire it was applied to a court of justice. Under the republic the place for all judicial proceedings was the comitium and the forum. (Ni pagunt in comitio aut in foro ante meridiem causam coniicito quum per- orant ambo praesentes. Dirksen, Uebersicht, &c. p. 7*25.) But for the sake of shelter and convenience, it became the practice to hold courts in the Basilicae, which contained halls, which were also called auditoria. In the dialogue de Oratoribus (c. 39), the writer observes that oratory had lost much by cases being generally heard in "auditoria et tabularia." It is first under M. Aurelius that the auditorium principis is mentioned, by which we must understand a hall or room in the imperial residence ; and in such a hall Septimius Severus and the later emperors held their regular sittings when they presided as judges. (Dig. 36. tit. 1. s. 22, 49. tit. 9. s. 1; Dion Cass. Ixxvi. 11; Dig. 4. tit. 4. s. 18.) The provincial governors also under the empire sometimes sat on their tribunal as in the republic, and sometimes in the praetorium or in an auditorium. Accordingly, the latest jurists use the word generally for any place in which justice was administered. (Dig. 1. tit. 22. s. 5.) In the time of Diocletian, the auditorium had got the name of secretarium ; and in a constitution of Constantine (Cod. Th. i. tit. 16. s. 6), the two words seem to be used as equivalent, when he enacts that both criminal and civil cases should be heard openly (before the tribunal), and not in auditoria or eecretaria. Valentinianus and Valens allowed causes to be heard either before the tribunal or in the secretarium, but yet with open doors. From the fifth century, the secretarium or secretum was the regular place for hearing causes, and the people were excluded by lattice-work (cancellae) and curtains (vela) ; but this may have been as much for convenience as for any other purpose, though it appears that at this late period of the empire there were only present the magistrate and his officers, and the parties to the cause. Only those whom the magistrate invited, or who had business, or persons of certain rank (honorati) had admission to the courts, under the despotic system of the late empire. (Cod. 1. tit. 48. s. 3 ; Hollweg, Handbuch des Oivilprozesses, p. 215.) [G. L.] (“Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities”, edited William Smith, 1870)
French comment : Du latin auditor, de même sens. (Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, huitième édition 1932-1935. Provenç. auditor, auzidor ; de auditor, de audire voy. OUÏR. L'ancienne forme donnée par auditor, auditórem, est pour le nominatif oere, pour le régime oeor, lesquels sont faits )AUDITOIRE : Provenç. auditori ; espagn. et ital. auditorio ; d'auditorium, de audire (voy. ).Enceinte où une assemblée se réunit pour entendre des orateurs. Lieu où l'on plaide dans les tribunaux. Collectivement, tous ceux qui écoutent. Dans les anciennes églises, la nef. Salle destinée à l'audition d'oeuvres théâtrales, musicales ou autres.OUÏR, v. du latin audire (entendre), en changeant au en ou, et en syncopant le d qui reparaît dans auditif, auditeur, audition. Au présent : j'oi ou j'ois, vous oyez; à l'imparfait : j'oyais; au passé : j'ouïs; au futur : j'orrai ou j'oirai; au conditionnel : j'orrais ou j'oirais; au présent du subjonctif : que j'oie; à l'imparfait : que j'ouïsse; au participe actif : oyant. Ce verbe ne s'employait déjà plus du temps de Régnier-Desmarais (Grammaire, Paris, 1706, p. 430) qu'au prétérit de l'indicatif j'ouis, à l'imparfait du subjonctif, j'ouisse; au présent de l'infinitif, ouir, et dans les temps composés, j'ai oui, j'aurai oui, etc. Le verbe ouir, dit M. de Rivarol, qui s'affilioit si bien au sens de l'ouïe, aux mots d'oreille, d'auditeur, d'audience, ne nous a laissé que son participe oui et les temps qui en sont composés : pour tout le reste nous employons le verbe entendre. Oyez n'est plus employé qu'au barreau. On a conservé ce mot en Angleterre.OUI : C'est proprement le participe du verbe ouïr; nous disons oui par ellipse pour "cela est ouï, c'est entendu". Les latins disaient, dans le même sens, dictum puta (prenez-le pour dit). (François Noel, L.J.M. Carpentier, "Philologie française ou dictionnaire étymologique, critique, historique, anecdotique littéraire... pour servir à l'histoire de la langue française", ´Éditeur Le Normant Père, 1831, pp. 508-509)
Urls : http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=audience (last visited )

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