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1900 __ « Gleichschwebende Aufmerksamkeit / Freischwebende Aufmerksamkeit »
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Comment : Sigmund Freud distinguished two types of attention : focused attention and hovering a free-floating attention. In focused atteention you tune out the surroundings and concentrate on one thing at a time. The free-floating attention attains a distance but also requires presence. A free-floating attention is what you use when you drive a car. You soften your gaze and take in the myriad bits of information and juggle them intuitively. (Anne Bogart, “And Then, You Act : Making Art in an Unpredictable World”, 2007)The human voice plays a crucial role within the realm of psychoanalysis on a multitude of different levels: there is, for a start, the voice of the Other that imposes itself upon the subject; and the experience of auditory hallucination, of “hearing voices” which sound as if they come from outside the subject even though they are supposedly but within. Then there is the so-called “voice of consciousness”, telling us what to do (superego); and the hypnotic voice – the original voice of the therapist – that demands submission by repeating a formula that loses all meaning by being repeated (Dolar, M. (1996) “The Object Voice”, in Zizek, S. and Renata, S. (eds.), "Gaze and Voice as Love Objects". Durham and London: Duke University Press, (p.7-31). p.14). - Voice at the Birth of Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) - Although in the actual writings of Sigmund Freud explicit references to voice are but few and far between, it is evident that Freud was in fact a uniquely attentive listener to voices and that voice played a central role at the scene of the birth of psychoanalysis, that is, at the time of Freud’s collaboration with Josef Breuer on the treatment of hysterical patients (Freud S. & Breuer, J. (1990) Studies in Hysteria. London: Penguin). Voice is and always has been relevant to psychoanalysis not only in the rather banal sense that psychoanalysis first emerged as a “talking cure”, as a practice, that is, that relies heavily on the spoken word; but more profoundly insofar as the voice, and in particular certain disturbances of the voice, from stammering and tongue-clicking, to unintelligible clackings, splutterings and groaning, or to the phenomenon of aphonia or total speech loss, came to be seen by Freud as manifestations of unconscious conflicts and tensions which it was the purpose of psychoanalysis to release. At the origin of psychoanalytic practice the voice appears therefore both as a material support for the "symptom" of, and as a "gateway" to, the unconscious. Behind this notion of the voice as symptom and gateway lies the Freudian assumption that what constitutes a person is not something mysterious as such, but rather something that can, at least in principle, be fully revealed and known. In the context of the (Freudian) psychoanalytical situation, insofar as the patient’s voice provides clues (primarily for the analyst) to revealing tensions or blockages in the unconscious drives that make up that person, the voice may be conceived as a kind of "positive index", in other words as something that corresponds to that which is expressed in it. The figure of the voice that emerges from this situation is thus not only “positive” in the sense that it is a real, perceivable (acoustic) phenomenon, it is also “positivistic” in that it is thought to reveal the hidden substance of subjectivity, the signified, or something like the “truth” of the person to whom it belongs. At the dawn of the twentieth century, that is, during the infancy of psychoanalysis, a still largely humanist concept of identity and subjectivity, understood as something ideally stable and knowable, prevailed. This concept had yet to be destabilized and disrupted as it would be in the wake of (post-)structuralist theories in the 1960s. But before considering some of the effects of this destabilization upon the figure of voice, let us pause for a moment to ponder upon another aspect of central importance to psychoanalysis, be it Freudian or other – an aspect, moreover, that it is surely of fundamental relevance to any reflection upon, or experience of, voice – the notion and practice of "listening". - On Listening with the “Third Ear” (Theodor Reik) - « All perception is at bottom listening » (Lacoue-Labarthe, P. (1998) “The Echo of the Subject”, in "Typography. Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics". Stanford: Stanford University Press, (p.139-207), p. 162) - If it was perhaps a certain experience of, or attentiveness to, voice that originally gave rise to Freud’s discovery of the unconscious and to his development of the practice of psychoanalysis, then a particular kind of listening – and of hearing – must also have had an essential part to play in this scenario. What manner or mode of listening is most appropriate to the analytic situation? Freud was aware that in order for the analyst to be able to spend several hours a day listening to various patients talk, it would be impossible for that person to be constantly consciously attentive to what each patient was saying. It was simply too much to take in. Moreover, Freud warned of the danger that the analyst, perhaps in listening too attentively to what the patient says, might project unjustified meaning onto certain aspects of the narrative thus letting conscious or unconscious intentions of his own interfere with the interpretation. Instead, Freud described the model of listening that the analyst should favour to be a kind of “floating attention” ("Freischwebende Aufmerksamkeit", Freud Sigmund.1940-1952, "Gesammelte Werke" (Vols. 1-17), Freud, A. et al. (eds.). vol. 7, p.377. London: Imago). Borrowing a Nietzschean metaphor, Theodor Reik, a pupil of Freud’s, developed this further into the idea of listening “with the third ear” (Reik, T. (1948) Listening with the Third Ear. New York: Grove Press). The purpose of this listening is to focus not on what is said and certainly to avoid understanding or thinking about what is heard, but instead to aim to be a kind of open receptacle for the small signs or seeming irrelevances in the patient’s narrative which might quietly suggest another story behind the main narrative, the hidden story arising from the seat of the unconscious. Listening “with the third ear” means focusing less on what is being said than on the movement and modulations of the voice as it speaks, for: « It is not the words spoken by the voice that are of importance, but what it tells us of the speaker. Its tone comes to be more important than what it tells. “Speak, in order that I may see you,” said Socrates. » (Reik, 1948, Ibid. p.136). As such, psychoanalytical listening aims to be attentive to the intricate and barely perceptible sound variations in the patient’s voice as she or he talks. Moreover, to the extent that it aims not to project meaning onto what is said but strives to remain both distant and open, there is an analogy to be made between listening with the third ear and listening to music: “Floating attention is a musical listening” (Küchenhoff, 1992, p.36 [my translation], InKüchenhoff, J. (2005). “Sprache, Symptom, Unbewußtes – die Hörwelt der Psychoanalyse”, in "Die Achtung vor dem Anderen. Psychoanalyse und Kulturwissenschaften im Dialog". Weilerswist: Velbrück, p.141-57). Yet Reik also emphasizes the fact that there are "unsounding", "quasi-silent" voices that the analyst can train him or herself to hear. Indeed, Reik’s third ear is able to pick up two channels at the same time: the unspoken, unsolved conflicts of the patient on the one hand, and the analyst’s own inner voices, on the other: « It can catch what other people do not say, but only feel and think […]. It can hear voices from within the self that are otherwise not audible because they are drowned out by the noise of our conscious thought-processes. The student of psychoanalysis is advised to listen to those interior voices with more attention than what “reason” tells about the unconscious; to be very aware of what is said inside himself, "écouter aux voix intérieures", and to shut his ear to the noises of adult wisdom, well-considered. » (Reik, 1948, Ibid. p.147). This awareness that the analyst must not only register what he hears coming from the patient but also consider his own responses, marks a gradual move, within the history of psychoanalysis, towards problematizing the relationship between the patient and the analyst. With regard to the status of voice, a shift can be observed that goes from considering the patient’s voice as a symptom of disorder (Freud), to taking that disorder to be in a certain sense characteristic of normal language (Lacan). This shift goes hand in hand with a change in the nature and intentionality of analytic listening. From a listening stance that originally aims to comprehend the unconscious (as the signified or psychoanalytic “truth” of the subject), via the intermediate stage of listening with the third ear, we move to Lacan’s more radical notion of a listening that actually aims to not understand: “It is important not to understand for the sake of understanding” (Lacan, Jacques. (1992) "The Ethics of Psychoanalysis 1959-1960". (p.278). Miller, J.-A. (ed), Porter, D. (trans). London/New York: Routledge). (Alice Lagaay, “Between Sound and Silence: Voice in the History of Psychoanalysis”, 2008)Evenly-suspended attention describes the necessary state of the analyst's mind when listening to the patient during a psychoanalytic session. It is the mirror image of the method of free association required of the patient. Freud set forth the notion of free-floating attention in "The Interpretation of Dreams" (1900) in connection with the secondary revision of the dream and the attitude the interpreter must take: "For the purposes of our interpretation it remains an essential rule invariably to leave out of account the ostensible continuity of a dream as being of suspect origin, and to follow the same path back to the material of the dream-thoughts, no matter whether the dream itself is clear or confused" (p. 500). His technical prescription is found in "Recommendations to Physicians Practising Psycho-Analysis" (1912e): "[I]t rejects the use of any special expedient (even that of taking notes). It consists simply in not directing one's notice to anything in particular and in maintaining the same 'evenly-suspended attention' (as I have called it) in the face of all that one hears . . . . It will be seen that the rule of giving equal notice to everything is the necessary counterpart to the demand made on the patient that he should communicate everything that occurs to him without criticism or selection. If the doctor behaves otherwise, he is throwing away most of the advantage which results from the patient's obeying the 'fundamental rule of psychoanalysis.' The rule for the doctor may be expressed: 'He should withhold all conscious influences from his capacity to attend, and give himself over completely to his 'unconscious memory.' The doctor must put himself in a position to make use of everything he is told for the purposes of interpretation and of recognizing the concealed unconscious material without substituting a censorship of his own for the selection that the patient has forgone" (pp. 111-12). The psychoanalyst must be able to interpret everything he hears in order to discover everything that the unconscious disguises, and this without substituting his own censorship for the selectivity the patient has renounced. Some authors (notably James Strachey in the Standard Edition) have proposed as alternatives the terms evenly-suspended or evenly-hovering attention (in French, both attention également flottante and attention flottante are used). This prescribed attitude for the analyst has been considered one of the constitutive elements of the analytic setting. Associated with "neutrality," it has also been compared with Theodor Reik's notion of "listening with the third ear." Since it requires that the analyst suspend judgment and eliminate his or her internal resistances and all personal censorship, it is clear that only prior analysis of the analyst can ensure that this state is maintained. In this special state, identifications and projections must be able to float freely, but some authors have emphasized the risk of falling asleep if the analyst is too intent on conforming to it (Fenichel, Otto. (1941) Problems of psychoanalytic technique. (David Brunswick, Trans.). New York: The Psychoanalytic Quarterly.). This observation has incited other authors to see in free-floating attention a state of self-hypnosis parallel to that triggered in the patient by the analytic setting (François Roustang). Contrary to the passivity and static aspect suggested by this description, Joseph Sandler has argued that the dynamic back-and-forth between this state and the return to a countertransferential analysis of what is perceived are conducive to "free-floating responsiveness" in the analyst (Sandler, Joseph. (1976). Counter-transference and role-responsiveness. International Review of Psycho-Analysis 3, 43-47.). (Compiled from various sources)Freud's Floating Attention This is the attention the analyst gives to the discourse of the neurotic [Parenthetically, the reference to 'neurotic' here is not generic - it does seem that psychotic (notably schizoid) patients will not settle for anything less than undivided attention - R D Laing pointed this out many years ago, I recall]. Now this concept of floating attention is an extremely interesting one, especially in a context where our experience of art and entertainment does often enough involve casual dropping-in and dropping-out (as when we listen to car stereos or watch TV) or alternatively active channel hopping and surfing. For Freud, the concept of floating attention emerges in the context of looking for ways in which the analyst can hear - rather than miss hearing - the significance of whatever is being said in an analysis, especially when it hits up against his or her own personal limitations or theoretical preconceptions. The idea is that there might be a kind of attention which allows things to get to us, rather than deny them entry. (Trevor Pateman, “Twenty concepts for Aesthetics: A lecture”)If we do « listen », there exists in the expectation, above all, a tension, of the in-between: something, in this vacuum of action, is loaded with strength and potentiality. If we do see, this inactivity of the expectation is active, its vacuum is creative. Latin language uses the verb "tender" (bend) in the expression « tendere saggitas arcu »: to bend an arrow on a bow. It refers to a tension (between the string and the spring) that is waiting for a discharge; first the arrow is placed on its bow and, for a moment, it has no destiny yet, no precise goal: it has no target. I would define as messianic this undirected expectation: we expect something we know nothing about, someone we don't know. We don't know when the messiah will arrive, and whether he will come. It is an expectation that has no goal. It generates a tension that first gets through our body and spirit, before discharging towards something, before releasing. The target that the arrow will meet later, almost serves this tension alike the object that we aim at in front of us, serves our attention. The unconscious also reveals itself to us as something that stands in an Active expectation, a sort of tension, of energy that is in space and in the air, that may at any time discharge itself, as a flash, towards an attractive target. This expectation produces psychic time that opens an empty space enabling a tension to appear between two polarities being balanced, between unconscious and conscious, but also between unconscious and unconscious. Psychoanalysis operates within an expectation that it contributes to produce; it helps us learning how to float in this vacuum that is a contraction of knowledge, of body, of matter. In the psychoanalyst's waiting room, there are things that occur, in the same way in the vacuum created between two sessions: to be waiting means to be in the tension, in the attention. The analysand is expecting, is in the tension, is patient. In an analytic session, two expectations and two attentions are facing one another: that of the analyst, which has no intention at all, and that of the analysand who learns how to bring in tension the images, the signifiers in the associative chain. Freud defines the psychoanalyst's attention as floating. It is not a question of being inattentive, but rather a real strong attention that is circumcised, cut from intention. The latter is an articulation of the consciousness that drives any attention towards a precise goal. An intention is a tension completely oriented towards the object, it is also a « mirare a », looking towards a future that is unknown to us. Freud invites us to avoid the « danger that is inseparable from deliberate attention. Indeed, when we deliberately direct our notice... we also start selecting among the material offered to us... if, doing this selection, we follow our expectations, we run the risk to find nothing but what we already know...» Thus, the psychoanalyst's floating attention allows having a real listening of the psychic reality that is inaccessible to conscience. That is the way patients operate when they explore their inner world, using the method of free associations that is based on the free tension created between the ideas, a tension that makes a link between them. The attention created between psychoanalyst and psychoanalysand is made possible finally, thanks to the transference that is a tension between two unconscious poles. The technique proposed by Freud is, quoting his own words: « to not direct one's notice to anything in particular and to maintain the same « evenly-suspended » attention when listening to all that we are given to hear. This floating attention feeds on a tension that is balancing, but also moving.The German expression, used by Freud, to express this idea is: « Gleichschwebende Aufmerksamkeit », the syntagm can be translated into English language as follows: « attention/observation/perception being in an unstable equilibrium, in an indecision, when facing the reality » Waiting, paying attention to something, but also listening, all this presupposes the uncertainty of what will come next, hence, the absolute absence of prejudices. The principle of uncertainty formulated by Heisenberg in 1927 informs us that it is impossible to measure at the same time both the position of a particle and its speed with accuracy. The more precise is the determination of one, the less we will learn about the other. Alike what goes on with this principle of indetermination, the analytical activity must silence the knowledge, which is pre-knowledge, in order to be able to act within the reality of the cure. The aim is neither to measure nor name the real, which would then stop the analytical activity, but to wait, let spring up and then sprout the psychic dynamics so as to change them and move them. Naming, defining activities means stopping them, preventing their movement and their future transformation. The patient learns how to name, but through a metaphorization process that is unlimited. Psychic activities show an amazing resemblance with the movement of the electron, around the nucleus, insofar as it stands as a symptom. Naming it does not mean yet healing it but only making it part of a link. However, it would still need to be transformed, humanized (this is the sinthome; synt-man), and transcended into a creation. In the cure, psychoanalysts must keep themselves in a total ignorance when faced with psychic activities that cannot be measured nor determined; they must refrain from pre-directing their meaning and should let patients take the initiative and feel free to continue the psychic, then symbolic work, with their strengths.The floating attention allows to follow-up step by step the indecision of each cure activity. Alike movements of electrons that are unpredictable, which makes it impossible to measure or master, movements of signifiers and emotional stresses, during a cure, are unpredictable.What occurs during an analysis is unpredictable, thus unexpected. In our life, we are always expecting something that often does not happen and when it does, we say it was not what we had been... expecting. Our desire expects the unexpected or maybe it is just waiting. This expectation is not passive; it is an experience with a creation. The destiny of an analysis is linked to this experience which spreads out within a tension that produces time that is new: by articulating the pasts with all its catastrophes, the present of the analytic work and the storm of the future, which pushes the angel of history (as evoked by Walter Benjamin) , but also the angel of the analytic experience, « towards a future, to which his back is turned, while the pile of debris before him grows toward the sky. (Paolo Lollo, “EXPECTING HOPE, THE BACK TO THE FUTURE”, 2010)« Freud defined this particular kind of attention as "gleichschwebend." The word is difficult to translate; simultaneously with its connotation of equal distribution, it also has the meaning of revolving or circling. The closest I can come to the German word is "freely floating." Another possibility, which emphasizes the psychological balance rather than the motion, would be "poised attention." Two factors induced Freud to recommend such free-floating attention. ». (Reik, T. 1956. “Listening with the Third Ear : the inner experience of a psychoanalyst”. New York: Grove Press Chpt XV & XVI, pp. 144-172)
French comment : Écoute flottante : mode d'écoute du psychanalyste adapté à l'association libre et qui consiste à ne rien privilégier par avance de ce que dit l'analysant, de façon à laisser ce qui est important se dégager de l'enchaînement des mots et des idées, sans l'intervention intempestive du clinicien. Association libre : le psychanalyste invite l'analysant" à dire tout ce qui lui vient à l'esprit sans chercher à le contrôler, l'orienter ou le sélectionner, c'est-à-dire à associer librement. Cette règle fondamentale est destinée à confronter le sujet à ce qu'il y a de non libre dans la parole et à l'inviter à dire toutes les pensées qui lui viennent à l'esprit, sans tri, sans jugement, sans discrimination.Piaget définit le premier, dans la première partie du XXe, les principes de l’entretien clinique dans une perspective thérapeutique. Il remarque que si on pose des questions classiques à un enfant, il se confie peu ou invente en tentant de trouver la bonne réponse. Mais il suffit de l’écouter sans poser de question précise pour qu’il parle spontanément, en dévoilant sa personnalité et ses motivations profondes. Freud ajoutera, grâce à son travail sur les rêves, l’association d’idées et l’écoute flottante. En plus de laisser la personne s’exprimer de manière libre, le psychologue doit l’aider à dérouler le fil de ses associations. C’est ce qu’on fait couramment lorsqu’on demande à son interlocuteur de réagir de façon spontanée en livrant, avant tout jugement de valeur, les évocations et associations que lui suggère tel sujet ou tel produit. Carl Rogers thématisera, après la seconde guerre mondiale, le troisième principe de non directivité. Considérant que chacun est spontanément maître de son destin, il affirme que le rôle du psychosociologue en entretien est d’aider son interlocuteur à s’ « auto-centrer » pour avancer dans sa réflexion sur lui-même, en élaborant progressivement son jugement.La technique psychanalytique prend ses bases dans deux axiomes essentiels : les associations libres et l'écoute flottante. L'association libre est l'expression spontanée de tout ce qui vient à l'esprit du patient : des images, des mots, des souvenirs. Celui-ci doit poursuivre le fil de sa pensée, de ses émotions, de ses visualisations et de ses sensations sans aucune censure. L'écoute flottante est l'aptitude ou l'attention du psychanalyste libre des préjugés. Un autre élément clé de l'analyse freudienne est le phénomène du transfert; le psychanalyste sert de support au transfert du patient. Pendant le traitement, le patient en vient à identifier le psychanalyste à des objets, à des personnages de son passé, aimés ou haïs, souvent membres de sa famille. Ceci peut créer des liens émotionnels forts auxquels l'analyste répond en assumant le rôle qui lui est assigné. Cette relation est un élément crucial de la réussite de la thérapie et un outil essentiel de l'exploration de l'inconscient du patient. Le psychanalyste représente alors en effet aux yeux du patient deux figures dichotomiques à la fois : l'objet ou le personnage du passé et le magicien qui sait. Ce transfert permet le fonctionnement de la cure analytique : le patient va pouvoir chercher la vérité qui existe en lui, que quelqu'un pour lui, le psychanalyste, connaît. Ce sentiment persiste chez le patient jusqu'au terme de la cure où il va se rendre compte que en fait c'est lui le patient qui savait, et que le transfert lui a permis de trouver ce qu'il devait trouver pour s'en débarrasser. Au cours de ce transfert le patient va revivre tout ce qu'il a vécu, ainsi ces faits vont se réactualiser dans la cure pour être reconnus et identifiés. Le psychanalyste est l'élément du transfert, on déplace sur lui les sentiments refoulés que l'on a besoin de retrouver pour les identifier pour s'en délivrer. (. Compiled from various sources)Le verbe attendre, d'abord, nous suggère une condition de suspension de toute action, un état de passivité. A première vue l'attente et le vide nous renvoient à une sorte d'immobilité et d'insupportable ennui. C'est pour cette raison, peut-être, que nous sommes habitués à attendre toujours quelque chose, ou quelqu'un, et donc de diriger notre attention vers une finalité et un but.A bien « entendre », dans l'attente, il y a avant tout une tension, de l'entre-deux: quelque chose, dans ce vide d'action, se charge de force et de potentialité. A bien voir, cette inactivité de l'attente est active, son vide est créateur.En latin, on emploie le verbe tendre dans l'expression « tendere saggitas arcu » : tendre une flèche sur un arc. Il s'agit d'une tension (entre la corde et le ressort), qui est en attente d'une décharge ; la flèche d'abord est chargée sur son arc et, pendant un moment, n'a pas encore une destinée, un but précis : elle n'a pas de cible. Cette attente, qui n'est pas dirigée, je la définirais comme messianique : on attend quelque chose dont on ne sait rien, quelqu'un qu'on ne connaît pas. On ne sait pas quand le messie viendra et s'il viendra. C'est une attente qui n'a pas de but. Elle produit une tension qui traverse d'abord notre corps et notre esprit, avant de se décharger vers quelque chose, avant de se détendre. La cible que la flèche rencontrera plus tard est presque au service de cette tension comme l'objet qu'on vise devant nous est au service de notre attention. L'inconscient aussi se manifeste à nous comme quelque chose qui est dans une Attente active, une sorte de tension, d'énergie qui est dans l'espace et dans l'air, qui peut d'un moment à l'autre se décharger, comme un éclair vers une cible séduisante. Cette attente est productrice de temps psychique qui ouvre un espace vide permettant la naissance d'une tension entre deux polarités en équilibre, entre inconscient et conscient, mais aussi entre inconscient et inconscient. La psychanalyse travaille dans une attente qu'elle concourt à produire ; elle nous permet d'apprendre à flotter dans ce vacuum qui est contraction de savoir, de corps, de matière. Dans la salle d'attente du psychanalyste il se passe des choses, ainsi dans le vide qui se crée entre deux séances : être en attente signifie être en tension, en attention. L'analysant est en attente, il est en tension, il est patient. Dans une séance analytique deux attentes et deux attentions se font face : celle de l'analyste, totalement dépourvue d'intention, et celle de l'analysant qui apprend à mettre en tension les images, les signifiants dans la chaîne associative. L'attention du psychanalyste est définie par Freud comme flottante. Il ne s'agit pas d'une attention distraite, mais d'une vraie attention puissante qui est circoncise, coupée de l'intention. Cette dernière est une articulation de la conscience qui pousse toute attention vers un but précis. L'intention est une tension totalement dirigée vers l'objet, elle est aussi un « mirare à », regarder vers un futur qui nous est inconnu. Freud nous invite à éviter le « danger qui est indissociable de l'attention intentionnelle. En effet, du moment où l'on tend intentionnellement son attention... on commence aussi à sélectionner parmi le matériel offert... si dans cette sélection on suit ses attentes, on est en danger de ne jamais trouver rien d'autre que ce que l'on sait déjà...» L'attention flottante du psychanalyste permet donc une vraie écoute du réel psychique qui est inaccessible à la conscience. C'est ainsi que le patient procède dans son voyage d'exploration de son monde intérieur, en utilisant la méthode des associations libres qui est fondée sur la libre tension qui se crée entre les idées, tension qui établit entre elles un lien. L'attention qui se crée entre psychanalyste et psychanalysant est possible enfin grâce au transfert qui est une tension entre les deux pôles inconscients.La technique que nous propose Freud consiste selon ses mots : « à ne vouloir porter son attention sur rien de particulier et à accorder à tout ce qu'il nous est donné d'entendre la même « attention en égal suspens... » Cette attention flottante se nourrit d'une tension en équilibre, mais qui est aussi en mouvement.L'expression allemande, utilisée par Freud, pour exprimer cette idée est : « Gleichschwebende Aufmerksamkeit », Le syntagme pourrait être traduit en français ainsi : « attention/observation/perception qui est dans un équilibre instable, dans une indécision, face au réel ». Attendre, prêter attention à quelque chose, mais aussi écouter présuppose l'incertitude de ce qui va suivre, et donc l'absence absolue des pré-jugés. Le principe d'incertitude formulé en 1927 par Heisenberg nous apprend qu'il est impossible de mesurer à la fois la position d'une particule en même temps que sa vitesse de façon exacte. Plus l'on détermine avec précision l'une, moins on saura de choses sur l'autre. Comme pour ce principe d'indétermination le procès analytique doit, pour pouvoir intervenir dans le réel de la cure, faire taire le savoir, qui est pré-savoir. Le but n'est pas de mesurer et de nommer le réel, en arrêtant ainsi tout procès analytique, mais d'attendre, laisser surgir et puis pousser les dynamiques psychiques pour les transformer et les déplacer.Nommer, définir des procès signifie les arrêter, empêcher leur mouvement et leur transformation future. Le patient apprend à nommer, mais dans un processus de métaphorisation qui est infini. Les procès psychiques ressemblent étrangement au mouvement de l'électron, autour du noyau, en ce qu'il fait symptôme. Le nommer ne signifie pas encore le guérir mais seulement l'inscrire dans un lien. Il faudrait cependant encore pouvoir le transformer, l'humaniser (c'est le synthomme), et le transcender dans une création.Dans la cure, le psychanalyste doit se tenir dans une sainte ignorance face à des procès psychiques qui ne sont pas mesurables et déterminables ; il doit se retenir de pré-orienter leur sens et laisser au patient l'initiative et la liberté de poursuivre avec ses forces le travail psychique et puis symbolique.L'attention flottante permet de suivre pas à pas l'indécision de chaque procès de cure. Comme les mouvements des électrons sont imprévisibles, rendant toute mesure et donc maitrîse impossible, ainsi les déplacements des signifiants et des charges émotionnelles, pendant une cure, sont imprévisibles. Ce qui se passe dans une analyse est de l'ordre de l'imprévisible et donc de l'inattendu. Dans la vie nous attendons toujours quelque chose qui souvent ne vient pas et quand elle nous arrive, et bien, ce n'était pas ça... qu'on attendait. Notre désir attend l'inattendu ou peut-être simplement il attend. Cette attente n'est pas passive, mais est une expérience de création. Le destin d'une analyse est lié à cette expérience qui se déploie dans une tension qui produit du temps nouveau : en articulant les passés avec toutes ses catastrophes, le présent du travail analytique et la tempête du futur, qui pousse l'ange de l'histoire (dont nous parle Walter Benjamin) , mais aussi l'ange de l'expérience analytique, « vers un avenir auquel il tourne le dos » « tandis que le monceau de ruines devant lui s'élève jusqu'au ciel ». (Paolo Lollo, “ATTENTE D'ESPOIR, DOS AU FUTUR”, 2010)
Original excerpt : « Er soll dem gebenden Unbewußten des Kranken sein eigenes Unbewußtes als empfangendes Organ zuwenden, sich auf den Analysierten einstellen wie der Receiver des Telephons zum Teller eingestellt ist. Wie der Receiver die von Schallwellen angeregten elektrischen Schwankungen der Leitung wieder in Schallwellen verwandelt, so ist das Unbewußte des Arztes befähigt, aus den ihm mitgeteilten Abkömmlingen des Unbewußten dieses Unbewußte, welches die Einfälle des Kranken determiniert hat, wiederherzustellen. »
Source : Freud, Sigmund. (1912[2000]). “Ratschläge für den Arzt bei der psychoanalytischen Behandlung” [1912]. Studienausgabe, Ergänzungsband, (pp. 175-176). Frankfurt am Main, Fischer, Sondersaugabe, 2000.
Source : Lecourt, Edith (1992). “Freud et le sonore”. Paris: Harmattan.
Source : Reik, Theodor (1948). “Listening with the Third Ear”. New York: Grove Press.
Urls : http://research.ncl.ac.uk/e-pisteme/issues/issue01/contents/e-pisteme%20Vol.%201(1)%20-%20Alice%20Lagaay%20(Full%20Text).pdf (last visited )

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