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1889 __ Kinetophonograph / Kinetophone
William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson (1860-1935)
Comment : W.K.L. Dickson demonstrated the 'Kinetophonograph', a device which synchronised sound by phonograph with images projected from film, to Thomas Edison, but they failed to develop the system effectively.Edison entrusted an assistant by the name of W.K.L. Dickson, turning over duties for safekeeping with the construction of the complex device. There for, in the year 1889, the "Edison Kinetophonograph", also known as the Kinetophone, capable of showing film in synchronization with a phonographic record became a reality ! The film in the kinetophonograph used was just invented by George Eastman. In accordance with Edison's specifications, Eastman supplied his newly invented celluloid film roll on 35mm stock with four perforations on each side of the frame for Edison's invented machine. These film rolls on 35mm stock with four holes on each side of the frame were made exactly the way Edison specified and remain a standard unchanged today! At first Edison neglected to develop a usable projector for the public to view his films on a screen. Instead, only one person at a time could view his kinetoscope privately as a peep-show novelty. The second year later in 1891, the off springs of the kinetophonograph viewer were demonstrated. The kinetograph camera and the kinetoscope viewer were demonstrated successfully! In December 1892 Edison's first motion picture studio was built at West Orange. The Studio was named "The Black Maria" because it resembled a Police Patrol Wagon! Edison's first motion pictures were deposited by assistant W.K.L. Dickson at the Library of Congress in August of 1893. Surviving to this day exists one of Edison's written films titled "Edison's Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze, 7th of January 1894". (Julie Marie Angel, “Thomas Alva Edison, The Wizard of Menlo”)
Source : Dickinson, William Kennedy-Laurie & Dickinson, Antonia (1895), “History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope, and Kinetophonograph”, Preface by Thomas Edison, New York: Albert Bunn, 1895, reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1970, and Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2000.
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