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1873 __ Telegraph in South America
Comment : THE BRAZILIAN SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH COMPANY.This was another John Pender company, formed on 8 January 1873. The Portuguese expressed preference for a British company to link it to Brazil. Already established at Carcavelos, Pender was able to set up the Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Company to link Carcavelos to Pernambuco via Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Not surprisingly Telcon were awarded the contract to manufacture and lay the complete system. CS Seine on her maiden voyage as a cable ship laid the section from Carcavelos to Madeira assisted by CS Minia. CS's Hibernia and Edinburgh laid the section from Madeira to St Vincent, Cape Verde Islands and CS's Hibernia and Seine laid the St Vincent-Pernambuco section with CS Investigator laying the shore ends. The cables were duplicated; in 1882 the Carcavelos-Madeira section by CS Seine, and in1884 the Madeira-St Vincent section by CS Scotia, and the St Vincent-Pernambuco section by CS Scotia and CS Calabria. These were the last cables laid before the change of name to the Western Telegraph Company.THE WESTERN AND BRAZILIAN TELEGRAPH COMPANY. Co-directors of William Hooper put forward a scheme to set up the Great Western Telegraph Company to lay a cable from England to the USA and on to Bermuda. They had been attracted by the profits being made by the Anglo American Telegraph Company. The Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company who had a substantial holding of shares in Anglo American, offered them its South American concessions on the condition they dropped the transatlantic plan, which they did. These concessions had been granted by the Brazilian Emperor to Sir Charles Tilston Bright who in turn sold them to Telcon. The Great Western Telegraph Company was wound up and the Western and Brazilian Telegraph Company (W&B) was set up in its place. The cable already manufactured by Hooper's Telegraph Works for the Atlantic was used on the east coast of South America between Para and Rio de Janeiro. CS Hooper laid the cables during 1873 from Para-Maranham-Ceara-Pernambuco-Bahia-Rio de Janeiro. Another company set up by the same directors was the Central American Telegraph Company to link Para, the northern end of the W&B system, to the West India & Panama Telegraph Company. The cable, laid in 1874 between Para and Demerara by CS Hooper, was abandoned in 1876 and the two systems had to rely on a landline connection until La Société des Télégraphes Sous-Marin laid a cable from Para to Martinique. The Companhia Telegrafica Platino-Brasilera [alternatively Platino-Brasileira] was set up in Brazil in 1874 to lay a cable from Rio de Janeiro to Chuy, Uruguay with the W&B company operating the service. This they did until 1879, when they took over the company and renamed it the London Platino Brazilian Telegraph Company. The 1026 nm cable was manufactured by Siemens Brothers who also undertook the installation. During the expedition two cable ships were lost. Two vessels, Ambassador and Gomos, were chartered and fitted out for the expedition. Ambassador laid her section of the cable, but Gomos ran aground on a sandbar in the Rio Grande do Sul and became a total loss. CS La Plata was chartered from W.T. Henley to lay the replacement cable, but foundered in the Bay of Biscay on 29 November 1874, with the loss of 58 lives. Ambassador collected another replacement cable and successfully laid it. At Chuy, a cable laid by W.T. Henley using CS Mazeppa ran to Montevideo and was owned by the Montevideo and Brazilian Telegraph Company. This company was also taken over by the W&B. From Montevideo a landline followed the River Plate for about sixty miles and then crossed into Argentina via a 25 nm cable laid by W.T. Henley in 1866. In 1873 the IRGP laid a cable from Montevideo to Punta Lara, Argentina, and this was later diverted to replace the landline. These cables were owned by the River Plate Telegraph Company and this company was also taken over by W&B. Connections to the West Coast of America Telegraph Company were made via the landlines of the Pacific and Europe Telegraph Company. (Bill Glover, "History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network - The Evolution of Cable & Wireless, Part 3", 2009)
Urls : http://atlantic-cable.com/CableCos/CandW/EATC/ (last visited )

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