NMSAT :: Networked Music & SoundArt Timeline

1870 __ Telegraph in China and Japan
Comment : During the 1860's work had begun in Russia on the erection of a telegraph line through European Russia to Siberia, and it was later decided to extend this line to Vladivostok on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, and to investigate the possibility of further extending it to Japan and China by submarine cables. THE GREAT NORTHERN CHINA AND JAPAN EXTENSION TELEGRAPH COMPANY, was founded on the 9th of January 1870. In May 1870 the task was to prepare the landing of the submarine cables at Hong Kong, near Shanghai and in Japan, and to organize the future operation of these cables. Owing to various mishaps it was not until the spring of 1871 that a cable was successfully laid from Hong Kong to the rocky island of Gutzlaff off the mouth of the river Yangtze. From there the cable was extended along the bed of the river to Woosung and thence to the city of Shanghai. Operations on this cable commenced on the 18th of April 1871 between the Company's recently established stations in Shanghai and Hong Kong. In order to overcome the obstacle of not being able to transmit the Chinese characters directly in the Morse alphabet, the Company had edited a special "dictionary" before the opening of the telegraph service. In the dictionary each Chinese character was represented by a group of numerals which could be transmitted in the Morse alphabet. This dictionary proved of great value in the development of telegraphic correspondence in the Chinese language. [...] After the Company had opened telegraph stations at Vladivostok and Nagasaki, the Shanghai-Nagasaki and the NagasakiVladivostok cables were laid in the summer of 1871 and immediately brought into use. However, connection between the Extension Company's cables in the Far East and the Northern's cables in Europe was not established until the end of the year, when the Russian Administration had completed the construction of the TransSiberian landline to Vladivostok. The route between Europe and the Far East via Russia was officially opened for public correspondence on the 1st of January 1872.The Danish Telegraphic Company connects Vladivostok to Nagasaki and Shanghai by means of underwater International cable. (History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications - from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network)
Urls : http://www.atlantic-cable.com/Books/GNT/ (last visited )

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