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1870 __ "Telettrofono"
Antonio Meucci (1808-1889)
Comment : In August 1870, Meucci obtained transmission of articulate human voice at a mile distance by using as a conductor a copper plait insulated by cotton. He called his device "telettrofono" (‘sound telegraph’). According to an Affidavit of lawyer Michael Lemmi drawings and notes by Antonio Meucci dated September 27, 1870 show that Meucci understood inductive loading on long distance telephone lines 30 years before any other scientists. Meucci holds on and, in 1871 establishes a company and files in for a patent, he names his invention “telettrofono”. The “Telettrophone Company,” has, as main scope, as the contract states, that of “carrying on all the necessary experiments to realize the ‘Telettrofono,’ that is the transmission of words (human voice) along electrical wires, as invented by Antonio Meucci”. There is still a money problem: with his $20 Meucci cannot afford to pay the cost of a patent, which sums up to $250 for a complete patent. As an alternative he files in for a “temporary” patent, or caveat, which lasts one year and can be renewed, the cost for each year being $10 dollars. Meucci will be able to pay this sum only up to year 1873.The Telettrofono Company" was the first company in the history that was set up with the aim of exploiting the telephone, as invented by Antonio Meucci. It was set up by an agreement stipulated between: Antonio Meucci, the inventor, Angelo Zilio Grandi, Secretary of the Italian Consulate in New York, Angelo Antonio Tremeschin, an entrepreneur in the field of civil constructions, Sereno G. P. Breguglia, owner of the Cigar Stand of the Hoffman Cafe in New Street, NY, where many businessmen from the nearby New York Stock Exchange convened. The agreement was fostered and notarized by Angelo Bertolino, a Notary Public of New York, and friend of Antonio Meucci, on 12 December 1871, a few weeks before the filing of Meucci's caveat "Sound Telegraph". (Basilio Catania)
French comment : Ingénieur italien émigré à Cuba où il inventa une méthode pour galvaniser le métal qu'utilisa alors l'armée cubaine, et une méthode afin de traiter de maladies par électrochocs, , il imagine en 1849 les bases du téléphone et fabrique un prototype, avant d'émigrer à New York afin de promouvoir ses inventions, Dès le milieu des années 1850, il crée son prototype de "telettrofono" installe un système de communication via un fil de cuivre entre son atelier et son domicile. En 1860, à New York, il fait une démonstration de son invention à son ami Enrico Bendelari, dont une description est publiée dans un journal de New York en italien, L'Eco d'Italia . Après avoir fondé le 12 décembre 1871 avec trois associés la Telettrofono Company, faute de financement, il ne peut payer 250 dollars pour un brevet et il dépose le 28 décembre 1871 un "avertissement de brevet" qui n'est que provisoire; Meucci peut le renouveler en 1872 et 1873, mais est trop pauvre pour le refaire ensuite. En 1874, il contacte Edward B. Grant le vice-président de la Western Union, compagnie de télégraphes, afin de lui présenter son "télégraphe parlant". Grant propose à Meucci d'utiliser ses locaux et d'y entreposer son matériel, et d'examiner les plans de l'invention, puis repousse durant deux ans tout rendez-vous pour une démonstration, jusqu'à ce qu'en 1876 Meucci, faute de financement, perde ses droits sur son invention. La Western Union prétendit que le prototype fourni avait été perdu. (Compiled from various sources)
Original excerpt : « Article of Agreement.Made this twelfth day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one (1871), between Antonio Meucci, of Clifton, New York, Angelo Antonio Tremeschin, of Vicenza, Italy, Angelo Zilio Grandi, of New York, N. Y., and Sereno G. P. Breguglia, of Brooklyn, N. Y., as follows: The said parties above named, have agreed and by these presents do agree to become copartners together under the firm of Telettrofono Company (Speaking Telegraph), in the business of making and trying all the necessary experiments for the accomplishment of the Telettrofono, i. e. of the transmission of the word (human voice), through electric wires, invented by the aforesaid Antonio Meucci. The said Antonio Meucci, having just filed, at the Patent Office of the United States of America the Caveat for the application, in order to secure Letters Patent from the U. S. Government of the said his invention, he, the said A. Meucci, hereby binds himself, when such Letters Patent will be granted to him, to leave them as an integral part of this co-partnership, which co-partnership is to commence on this date and to continue for all the duration of said Letters Patent; he, the said Antonio Meucci, by these presents, in consideration of the sum of one dollar legal money, to him in hand paid, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, renouncing to all his rights of selling, of assigning, or otherwise disposing of such Letters Patent, if granted. And to that end and purpose the said parties hereby covenant and agree that the said copartners, A. A. Tremeschin, A. Zilio Grandi and S. G. P. Breguglia, shall be fully impowered, and they promise and bind themselves to do their best endeavors to secure patent for the same invention in any State of Europe, or other part of the world, to form copartnerships, to raise companies, to sell or assign, in part, the rights of such invention, and to do all what can result to the benefit and good success of this enterprise; and it is agreed, also, that the said parties, Tremeschin, Zilio Grandi and Breguglia, shall bear, at their own charge at equal share, at the rate of one third each, all the expenses of any kind and nature, for whatever experiment which shall be deemed useful and necessary to the aforesaid purpose. And it is agreed, also, that the said Antonio Meucci shall be exempt of any charge for such expenditures in consideration of his invention. [...]City of New York, this 14th day of December, 1871. » (National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD - RG60, File 6921-1885, Box 10, Folder 1)
Source : Catania, Basilio (2000), “Antonio Meucci, Inventor of the Telephone: Unearthing the Legal and Scientific Proofs”, Lecture at the Casa Italiana of the New York University, 10 October 2000.
Urls : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Meucci (last visited ) http://www.chezbasilio.it/lecture_ny_university.htm (last visited ) http://www.chezbasilio.it/telettrofono_co.htm (last visited ) http://files.meetup.com/1004848/MeucciMarch07.pdf (last visited )

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