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1832 __ Needle electromagnetic telegraph
Baron Pavel Schilling von Canstatt (1780-1836)
Comment : When Baron Pavel Schilling first saw Sommering's telegraph, he was inspired by it and began to study electricity and its uses. Then a Russian diplomat working at the Munich embassy, Schilling became a regular visitor at Sommering's house, and introduced friends from across Europe to the device. He went on to apply electricity to military uses, including remotely exploding gunpowder. He also continued to follow his interest in the electric telegraph and by the early 1830s had shown that coiling electrical wire around a magnetised needle would make it swing one way or the other, depending on which way a current flowed through the coil. He had also applied this principle in a simple form of telegraph, by making use of horizontally mounted indicator needles. Baron Schilling's needle telegraph was hardly noticed outside St. Petersburg, but two Germans - Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Eduard Weber - saw Schilling's 1832 demonstration. The following year they sent signals over a distance of more than two kilometres using a form of two-wire single-needle telegraph.The telegraph invented by Baron Schilling von Canstatt in 1832 had a transmitting device which consisted of a keyboard with 16 black-and-white keys. These served for switching the electric current. The receiving instrument consisted of 6 galvanometers with magnetic needles, suspended from the silk threads. Both stations of Shilling's telegraph were connected by eight wires; six were connected with the galvanometers, one served for the return current and one - for a signal bell. When at the starting station the operator pressed a key, the corresponding pointer was deflected at the receiving station. Different positions of black and white flags on different disks gave combinations which corresponded to the letters or numbers. Later Pavel Shilling improved its apparatus. He reduced the number of connecting wires from 8 to 2. On October 21, 1832, Schilling managed a short-distance transmission of signals between two telegraphs in different rooms of his apartment. In 1836 the Schilling's telegraph was tested on a 5 km experimental underground - underwater cable, laid around the building of the main Admiralty in Saint Petersburg. Schilling also was one of the first to put into practice the idea of the binary system of signal transmission. (Compiled from various sources)
French comment : Le télégraphe inventé par le Baron Schilling von Canstatt en 1832 était basé sur un dispositif de transmission qui était composé d'un clavier de 16 touches noires et blanches. Celles-ci servaient à commuter le courant électrique. L'instrument de réception était composé de 6 galvanomètres, les aiguilles magnétiques étant suspendues sur des fils de soie. Les deux stations du télégraphe de Schilling étaient reliées par huit fils ; six étaient reliés au galvanomètres, un servait au courant de retour et le dernier pour une cloche de signal. Lorsqu'à la station d'émission l'opérateur appuyait sur une touche, l'indicateur correspondant a était guidé vers la station de réception. Les différentes positions des drapeaux noirs et blancs sur différents disques donnaient les combinaisons qui correspondaient aux lettres ou aux nombres. Pavel a amélioré cet appareil : il a ramené le nombre de fils reliés de 8 à 2. Le 21 octobre 1832, le télégraphe Schilling a contrôlé une transmission de signaux sur une courte distance entre deux télégraphes placés dans différentes pièces de son appartement. En 1836 le télégraphe de Schilling a été testé dans un métro expérimental de 5 kilomètres - avec un câble sous-marin, autour du bâtiment de l'Amirauté principale à St Petersbourg. Le télégraphe Schilling était également un des premiers appareils à mettre en pratique le système binaire pour la transmission des signaux. (Compiled from various sources)
Urls : http://itp.nyu.edu/blogs/md1660/category/mechanisms-and-things-that-move (last visited )

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