NMSAT :: Networked Music & SoundArt Timeline

1831 __ Eidograph
William Wallace (1768-1843)
Comment : [See above 1631] A pantograph is a device with a simple physical connection between a pointer and a drawing pen on a piece of paper. Altering the linkage between the pointer and the pen alters the scale of the drawing. The first pantograph was constructed in 1603 by Christoph Scheiner, who used the device to re-create diagrams, but he wrote about the invention over 27 years later, in "Pantographice" (Rome 1631). One arm of the pantograph contained a small pointer while the other held a drawing implement, and by moving the pointer over a diagram, a copy of the diagram was drawn on another piece of paper. By changing the positions of the arms in the linkage between the pointer arm and drawing arm, the scale of the image produced can be changed. A more complicated version called the eidograph was developed by William Wallace in 1831. A type of pantograph was used in the early days of sound recording to duplicate phonograph cylinders in the late 19th century. One advantage of discs in the 1890s was that large numbers of discs could be stamped quickly and cheaply. In 1890, the only ways of producing inventories of cylinders were to mold the cylinders (this process turned out horrible cylinder copies), record cylinders by the "round", over and over again, or to acoustically copy the sound by placing the horns of two phonographs together or two hook the two together with a hollow rubber tube (one phonograph recording and the other playing the cylinder back). Edison, Bettini, Leon Douglass and others solved this problem (partially) by mechanically linking a cutting stylus and a playback stylus together and copying the "hill-and-dale" grooves of the cylinder mechanically. When molding improved somewhat, molded cylinders were used as pantograph masters. Some companies like the United States Phonograph Co. of Newark, New Jersey, supplied pantograph masters for smaller companies so that way they could duplicate the cylinders, sometimes pantographically, to fill their record catalogs. (Compiled from various sources)
French comment : Un pantographe est un instrument de dessin, formé de tiges articulées qui permet de faire des agrandissements ou des réductions en utilisant les propriétés de l'homothétie pour conserver les proportions entre le dessin original et la copie. Le premier pantographe a été construit en 1630 par Christoph Scheiner, un astronome allemand, qui utilisa l'instrument pour recréer des diagrammes. Un premier bras est fixe par rapport au support, le bras central est prolongé par un petit pointeur, et le dernier est muni d'un crayon. En déplaçant le pointeur sur le diagramme, une copie du diagramme est réalisée par le crayon sur une autre feuille de papier. La dimension de l'image produite peut être changée en modifiant la dimension du parallélogramme. Une gravure du pantographe apparaît dans L'Encyclopédie de Diderot et d'Alembert, à la moitié du XVIIIe siècle. Une version plus complexe, dérivée du pantographe et nommée eidographe, a été développée par William Wallace en 1831. (Compiled from various sources)
Urls : http://itp.nyu.edu/blogs/md1660/category/mechanisms-and-things-that-move (last visited )

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