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1709 __ The Statute of Anne
Comment : The Statute of Anne (short title Copyright Act 1709 8 Anne c.19; long title "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned") was the first copyright law in the Kingdom of Great Britain (thus the United Kingdom), enacted in 1709 and entering into force on April 10, 1710. It is generally considered to be the first fully-fledged copyright law. It is named for Queen Anne, during whose reign it was enacted. The Statute replaced the monopoly enjoyed by the Stationer's Company granted in 1557 during the reign of Mary I which, after several renewals, expired in 1695. Under this regime, company members would buy manuscripts from authors but once purchased, would have a perpetual monopoly on the printing of the work. Authors themselves were excluded from membership in the company and could not therefore legally self-publish, nor were they given royalties for books that sold well. The statute of 1709 vested authors rather than printers with the monopoly on the reproduction of their works. It created a 21 year term for all works already in print at the time of its enactment and a fourteen year term for all works published subsequently. It also required that printers provide nine copies to the Stationer's Company for distribution to the Royal Library, the libraries of Oxford, Cambridge, St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh, Sion College and the Faculty of Advocates library in Edinburgh. When Ireland united with Great Britain in 1801, Trinity College and King's Inns in Dublin were added as two further depositories. The current law governing UK copyright is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.Many historians have demonstrated how the power relations among the authors, publishers, and the State, which they use to legitimize their own interests, contribute to the shaping of copyright law. (Patterson and Lindbergh 1991 noted that because copyright was originally the product of a new communications technology the printing press, and copyright issues now extend to include products of other new communications technology the computer, the early )printers, bookbinders and booksellers, held a monopoly over printing and publishing in England. The Stationer’s Company originally used copyright to regulate trade by protecting works published by one member from piracy. The Star Chamber Decrees of 1586 and 1637 and a series of licensing acts granted exclusive privileges to the Company. Bettig (1990) argues that all of these acts protected the economic rights of Company members, but there was no reference to the protection of authors’ rights regarding their creative works in these acts. [...] By the end of the 17th century, writing became one of the ways of making a living, and was gradually becoming an individual pursuit for personal recognition. Authors and printers began to articulate the notion of “natural rights” in creative and intellectual works. Some scholars argue that the concept of the author’s intellectual property right was being defined by scholars like John Locke. In the second of his “Two Treatises of Government”, Locke articulated the conception of “natural rights” within the notion of common law property by extending his labor theory of value. However, for Locke this natural right to property did not belong to servants and wage laborers who had to sell their labor to survice. Thus laborers alienated their natural right to own the products they produced when they contracted to labor for someone else. Rather, this notion of natural right was used by publishers to argue that, since authors had a natural right on their works as a result of their creative labor, the transfer of the right to copy to the publisher gave them a license in perpetuity to publish and profit from the work. Aziz notes that although the Lockean view of intellectual property tights which positions the author as the “natural owner of his or her works implicity meant the shift of the ownership rights from the publisher to the author, it was used by publishers to secure perpetual ownership of the rights to multiply copies once authors surrendered their original manuscripts for printing in this time of the impending decline of the power of the Stationers’ Company (1989, pp. 64-65). There seemed to be little question that authors should be paid for their manuscripts, but the payments from publishers were not based so much on legal as economic grounds (Ploman and Hamilton, 1980). It is suggested that this Lockean libertarian idea coupled with the abolishments of the Court of Star Chamber in 1641, the decreased regulatory power of the Stationer’s Company after the English Civil War, and the rampant piracy in the aftermath of the House of Common’s refusal to renew the Licensing Act, led the members of the publishing industry to begin to seek some form of statutory protection, and to argue for it in a petition to the House of Commons in 1707. The campaign for authors’ rights was led by publishers because they perceived that when the statutory terms of coypright protection expired they would lose their monopoly privileges. The petitioners.the copyright holding publishers and printers, and the wholesalers tied to the monopoly, but no authors.finally secrured legal protection in the “Act for the Encouragement of Learning and for Securing the Property of Copies of Books to the Rightful Owners Thereof (know as the 1710 Copyright Act or the Statute of Queen Anne”. The Statute codified not only the Stationers’ copyright but also the author’s right to copy. The Statute of Anne made it legal for any person, not only the authors and publishers, to acquire copyright. Thus, this statutory copyright was limited in time but broadened in terms of those who are eligible to own the right. On the other hand, as Ploman and Hamilton points out, the Act had the effect of benefiting publishers since the Act did not provide for “natural” rights ownership to an author when the copyright was transferred or passed into the public domain. [...] The critical analysis of the history of the copyright law suggests that the legal notion of intellectual property supported the expansion of the realm of creative human activities that could be commoditized. It also suggests that copyright law facilitated the private appropriation of intellectual creativity, and legitimized the concentration of the ownership of literary and artistic works in the hands of publishers, a part of the emerging capitalist class (Bettig, 1990). In exchange for political loyalty, economic privileges were granted to printers and entrepreneurial booksellers. [...] First, the author’s natural right was not recognized in copyright, but when it was recognized, it was used as a rationale by publishers for granting property rights to themselves. The history of British publishing industry and the development of copyright also demonstrates that copyright in a legal sense has emerged as an instrument throught which certain groups and institutions.authors, publishers, and the State.legitimize their own interests. The incorporation of an author’s right into copyright principles has obscured the separate interests of authors and publishers. Rather, in the realm of literary and artistic creativity, scholars argue that the actual creators of the copyrighted work lost control over their product and were separated from it when copyright protection became exclusive for the owners of the copyright.usually publishers with capital. This was mostly due to the persuasive arguments of publishers articulating the rationale of granting the author’s right for the publishers’ own sake, which fit with the idea of the State organizing and controlling the information flow in society. Most of these provisions were contained in the United States’s first federal Copyright Act of 1790, which replicated those of the English Statute of Anne. (Jisuk Woo)
French comment : Avec le retour de la monarchie, les éditeurs-imprimeurs de Londres obtinrent le Statute of Anne (1709, appliqué à compter du 10 avril 1710), première loi véritablement fondatrice du droit patrimonial sur les œuvres artistiques. Le Statute of Anne donne à l'auteur d'ouvrages déjà édités le droit exclusif de les imprimer à nouveau pour une durée de vingt et un ans. Pour les nouveaux ouvrages, les auteurs disposaient d'un droit exclusif de 14 ans, avec possibilité de renouvellement une fois. La grande nouveauté de cette législation réside dans la décision de donner à l'auteur, et non à l'éditeur, le droit exclusif d'impression de sa création. Cette décision reflète d'une part l'arrivée dans le débat des auteurs eux-mêmes, et surtout l'utilisation de l'intérêt de l'auteur et de la création par les éditeurs. Ces derniers restent en effet les principaux promoteurs d'une législation restrictive pour le droit d'auteur. Suite au Statute of Anne, la question demeurait de savoir ce que devenaient les ouvrages après expiration du droit exclusif. Les éditeurs londoniens, fédérés en cartel défendirent l'idée qu'il existait, antérieurement au Statute of Anne, un droit coutumier conférant au titulaire des droits, en l'occurrence l'éditeur qui les achetait à l'auteur, un droit de publication exclusif et perpétuel. Cette interprétation du droit coutumier fut confirmé par une cour anglaise en 1769 par la décision Millar v. Taylor. Cependant, une décision d'une cour anglaise n'était pas opposable aux éditeurs installés dans d'autres parties du royaume, en particulier l'Écosse, où se développait une industrie d'édition de textes non couverts par le Statute of Anne. Tout comme la France n'a pas inventé les Droits de l'Homme qui ont été inventés par les Britanniques avec le Bill of Rights, c'est le Statute of Anne de 1709 qui forme le premier texte au monde de protection du copyright. De plus, il y a des différences fondamentales entre le "copyright" et le "droit d'auteur". Le premier s'attache à protéger les producteurs et la valeur monétaire des oeuvres, quand le second s'attache à protéger les auteurs et la valeur morale des oeuvres. (Compiled from various sources)Le droit de propriété intellectuelle a une longue histoire. Depuis le « Statute of Anne », loi britannique, première tentative d’écrire un « droit d’auteur » en 1710 la propriété littéraire a été conçue comme un droit d’équilibre entre les intérêts de la société (« encourager les hommes éclairés à composer et écrire des livres utiles » disait le Statut d’Anne) et ceux des auteurs. Ces derniers disposent du monopole d’exploitation de leurs œuvres, qui ne peuvent être éditées ou représentées sans leur consentement. Mais de nombreuses « exceptions et exemptions » sont présentes dans toutes les lois traitant de la création. Celles-ci visent à défendre la capacité de la société à utiliser la connaissance qui est incorporée dans des œuvres, et à faciliter l’accès aux œuvres et leur circulation : exceptions pour l’éducation et les bibliothèques, droit de copie privée, droit de citation, droit de caricature, droit de transcription pour favoriser l’accès par les personnes handicapées, etc.. Ajoutons que, traditionnellement, la propriété littéraire et artistique concerne la forme de la création, et non les idées qui sont contenues dans celle-ci. Elle englobe non seulement l’œuvre d’art originale et l’écriture créatrice, mais également les bases de données informatisées et les programmes informatiques. (Mouhamadou Moustapha Lo, "Droits de propriété intellectuelle", In "Enjeux de mots : regards multiculturels sur les sociétés de l’information", C & F Éditions, 2005)
Source : Fleury Mottelay, Paul (1922), “Bibliographical History of Electricity and Magnetism, Chronologically Arranged”, Read Books (2008), p. 149.
Source : Source :'' ''Burns, Russell W. (2004) "Communications: An International History of the Formative Years", London: Institution of Electrical Engineers, pp. 37-38.
Source : Chambers, Alexander (1821), “Amontons”, In The General Biographical Dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation : particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts to the present time, Printed for J. Nichols, Vol.2, p. 128
Source : Woo, Jisuk (2000), “Copyright Law and Computer Programs : The Role of Communication in Legal Structure”, Routledge, pp. 57-61.
Source : Bettig, Ronald V. (1996), “Copyrighting Culture : The Political Economy of Intellectual Properties”, Boulder : Westview Press.
Source : Ploman, Edward W. and Hamilton, L. Clark (1980), Copyright : Intellectual Property in th Information Age”, London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Source : Locke, John (1679-1680), “Two Treatises of Government”, Cambridge, ed. Peter Laslett (1988).
Source : Patterson, L. Ray and Lindberg, Stanley W. (1991), “The Nature of Copyright : A Law of Users’ Rights”, Athens, GA : The University of Georgia Press.
Urls : http://www.copyrighthistory.com/anne.html (last visited ) http://www.crl-bourgogne.org/index/revue/copyright_et_droit_d_auteur_a_l_ere_du_numerique_par_veronique_parisot.html (last visited ) http://barthes.ens.fr/scpo/Presentations00-01/Dalloz_CopyR_Left.html (last visited )

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