1952 __ Radio Bantu
‣ Comment : A broadcasting service for the Africans, or Bantu, [opened] on August 1, 1952, the Rediffusion Service was established. Broadcasts were made in three Bantu languages to the townships in Soweto west of Johannesburg. From June 1, 1962, broadcasts were made in Tswana and North Sotho from Pretoria. This was followed on January 1, 1963 with Zulu from Durban, and from June 1, 1963 Xhosa from Grahamstown. In February 1965, broadcasts in Venda and Tsonga were inaugurated from studios in Johannesburg and transmitted from stations in the Northern Transvaal province. The first station in South Africa was put up by the South African Railways in Johannesburg on December 29, 1923. The Scientific and Technical Club in Johannesburg took over on July 1, 1924. The Cape and Peninsula Broadcasting Association started a similar service in Cape Town, on September 15, 1924. The Durban organization began broadcasting on December 10, 1924. Financial support came from listener's licenses. (Vaughan Taylor, Colin Miller, Barry Mishkind) — In 1952, a commercial company installed in Soweto's Orlando township, even though residents objected that Orlando needed lights, schools, paved streets and adequate housing more than rediffusion. The African National Congress feared that radio would become an instrument of government propaganda. Others attacked it as a "back-to-the-kraal, apartheid and never-never-land service" that used African languages (rather than English) and migrant and "msakazo" music in a "develop-along-your-own-lines pattern". (Roy Richard Grinker, Christopher Burghard Steiner) — The first African language transmissions were made in 1940 by telephone lines when as a wartime measure, broadcasts in Zulu, Xhosa & Sesotho were relayed to townships in SA. The service however was short lived & in 1942 short daily African broadcasts could be heard on the medium wave frequencies of the A&B Programme, when these services were not running. On 1 May 1950, the very first commercial radio service in SA, broadcasting in both English & Afrikaans started it’s broadcasts. The new service would be known as the C-Programme, however that name was dropped prior to the first broadcast & the name Springbok Radio was adopted. The new commercial service could originally only be heard in Johannesburg, but quickly expanded to the other major cities of SA & at the end of 1951 was broadcasting to most of the major centers in Short Wave & later on Medium Wave. In 1952, a Rediffusion Service relaying the African language broadcasts was introduced, broadcasting in Southern Sotho, Zulu & Xhosa to townships west of Johannesburg. This gave rise to the formation of Radio Bantu on 1 June 1960. The other African languages followed, Radio Lebowa & Radio Setswana on 1 June 1962 & Radio Tsonga & Radio Venda on 1 February 1965. (THE HISTORY OF BROADCASTING IN SOUTH AFRICA)
‣ Source : Hamm, Charles (1991), “'The Constant Companion of Man': Separate Development, Radio Bantu and Music”, In Popular Music, No 19/2, Cambridge University Press.
‣ Source : Grinker, Roy Richard & Steiner, Christopher Burghard, (1996), “Perspectives on Africa: a reader in culture, history, and representation”, Wiley-Blackwell.
‣ Urls : http://www.oldradio.com/archives/international/safrica.html (last visited ) http://theflashingdial.forumwise.com/archive/o_t/t_1617/the_history_of_broadcasting_in_south_africa.html (last visited )
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