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1930 __ « Das Unbehagen in der Kultur »
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Comment : It seems that innovation in the human mind on the one hand and the many information flows necessary to social interaction on the other exist in a dynamic relationship of reciprocal modeling. Thus, ideally, the creativity of the innovative person is embedded in the organization, and the organization is embedded in that person. Sigmund Freud, certainly one of the greatest psychologists who ever lived, noticed this "inter-embeddedness" in a way that suggested to him a general direction for the future of technological innovation. Because distance, time, and effort were being reduced essentially to zero, Freud derived from this progression toward "perfection" that humans hed become "prosthetic Gods". He expected the trend to continue on into the future. (Tudor Rickards)
Original excerpt : « With every tool (man) is perfecting his own organs, whether motor or sensory, or is removing the limits to their functioning. Motor power places gigantic forces at his disposal, which, like his muscles, he can employ in any direction; thanks to ship and aircraft neither water nor air can hinder his movements; by means of spectacles he corrects defects in the lens of his own eyes; by means of the telescope he sees into the far distance; by means of the microscope he overcomes the limits of visibility set by the structure of his retina. In the photographic camera he has created an instrument which retains the fleeting visual impressions, just as the gramophone retains the equally fleeting auditory ones; both are at bottom materializations of the power he posesses of recollection, his memory. With the help of the telephone he can hear at distances which would be respected as unattainable even in a fairy tale. Writing was in its origin the voice of an absent person; and the dwelling-house was a substitute for the mother's womb, the first lodging, for which in all liklihood man still longs, and in which he was safe and felt at ease. »
Source : Freud, Sigmund (1930), "Civilization and its Discontents", translated by Joan Riviere, New York : Norton, 1961, p. 43.
Source : Freud, Sigmund (1930, “Das Unbehagen in der Kultur”, Wien: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag.
Source : Peters, John Durham (1999), "Speaking into the Air : A History of the Idea of Communication", Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 161-162.
Source : Rickards, Tudor (2003), "The Future of Innovation Research", In "The international handbook on innovation", edited by Larisa V. Shavinina, Elsevier, pp. 1110-1111.
Urls : http://www.christianhubert.com/writings/Prosthesis.html (last visited ) http://www.cinestatic.com/trans-mat/fisher/FC2s4.htm (last visited )

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