1466 __ Fuzei ('''風情)
‣ Comment : "This is important, for by paying more attention to [the] perceptual qualities. — size, shape, texture, configuration. — of materials, the fifteenth century manual roots the garden not so much in the natural world as in the functioning of the human senses that perceive it. This shift in emphasis is signaled as well by the relative occurrence in "Sakuteiki" and the "Illustrations" of the aesthetic concept "fuzei". The word "fuzei" os written with the Chinese characters for "breeze" and "feeling" and conveys the sense of "atmosphere" or "mood". I have translated it here as "scenic effect", and sometimes as "scenic ambience" or "scenic quality", when the atmosphere referred to in the "Illustrations" is that of a particular landscape scene, such as pines clustered along the flanks of a waterfall or isles in a bay viewed on a misty morning. "Fuzei" implies a poetic, quality-oriented approach to design. It describes the effect upon the viewer of those emanations that the design produces by virtue of its peculiar configuration of perceptual qualities. No doubt because these emanations seems to pervade the space between the art object and the viewer, charging it with their special quality, the word "fuzei" and several of our own English terms for it contain the element "air" or something similarly ethereal.". (David A. Slawson, "Secret teachings in the art of Japanese gardens: design principles, aesthetic values", 1991) — In Berque (1987), Sakuteiki's "fuzei" is understood as belonging to the character of the site (lieu) and designer (aménageur) and introduced as an illustrative exemple in Berque's philosophy of landscape motivation. [...] "Fuzei" (in the fifteenth-century Sansui manual) indicates an aesthetic appearance that is to be achieved. The aesthetic qualities of plant material are not treated but unconsciously implied in the Sakuteiki; these qualities are made explicit in the Sansui manual. Earlier Sansui sections speak of the "fuzei" of garden hills, ponds, and the like, where again the word indicates as anesthetic appearance and not the aesthetic sense of the garden maker. (Wybe Kuitert, “Themes in the history of Japanese garden art”, 2001)
‣ Source : Zōen (1466). « Senzui narabi ni yagyō no zu » (Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes), in Sonkeikaku Library, published in Sonkeikaku Soukan series. Tokyo:Ikutoku Zaidan 1930.
‣ Source : Berque, Augustin (1987). « Milieu et Motivation Paysagère ». In Revue L'Espace géographique, No 4, pp. 241-243.
‣ Urls : http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/comm_0588-8018_1997_num_64_1_1980 (last visited )
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