NMSAT :: Networked Music & SoundArt Timeline

1425 __ Hearing what others can’t heard — Voices heard by Joan of Arc
Comment : Joan was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée in Domrémy, a village which was then in the duchy of Bar (later annexed to the province of Lorraine and renamed Domrémy-la-Pucelle). Her parents owned about 50 acres (0.2 square kilometres) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and heading the local watch. They lived in an isolated patch of north-eastern territory that remained loyal to the French crown despite being surrounded by Burgundian lands. Several local raids occurred during her childhood and on one occasion her village was burned. Joan said she was about nineteen at her trial, so she was born about 1412; she later testified that she experienced her first vision around 1424 at the age of twelve years, when she was out alone in a field and heard voices. She said she cried when they left, as they were so beautiful. She said Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret told her to drive out the English and bring the Dauphin to Reims for his coronation. At the age of sixteen, she asked a kinsman, Durand Lassois, to bring her to nearby Vaucouleurs where she petitioned the garrison commander, Count Robert de Baudricourt, for permission to visit the royal French court at Chinon. Baudricourt's sarcastic response did not deter her. She returned the following January and gained support from two men of standing: Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy. Under their auspices, she gained a second interview where she made a remarkable prediction about a military reversal near Orléans. To summarize some major problems, the jurisdiction of judge Bishop Cauchon was a legal fiction. He owed his appointment to his partisan support of the English government which financed the trial. Clerical notary Nicolas Bailly, commissioned to collect testimony against Joan, could find no adverse evidence. Without such evidence the court lacked grounds to initiate a trial. Opening a trial anyway, the court also violated ecclesiastical law in denying her right to a legal advisor. Upon the opening of the first public examination Joan complained that those present were all partisans against her and asked for "ecclesiastics of the French side" to be invited. The trial record demonstrates her remarkable intellect. The transcript's most famous exchange is an exercise in subtlety. "Asked if she knew she was in God's grace, she answered: 'If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me.'" The question is a scholarly trap. Church doctrine held that no one could be certain of being in God's grace. If she had answered yes, then she would have convicted herself of heresy. If she had answered no, then she would have confessed her own guilt. Notary Boisguillaume later testified that at the moment the court heard this reply, "Those who were interrogating her were stupefied." In the twentieth century George Bernard Shaw found this dialogue so compelling that sections of his play Saint Joan are literal translations of the trial record. Several court functionaries later testified that significant portions of the transcript were altered in her disfavour. Many clerics served under compulsion, including the inquisitor, Jean LeMaitre, and a few even received death threats from the English. Under Inquisitorial guidelines, Joan should have been confined to an ecclesiastical prison under the supervision of female guards (i.e., nuns). Instead, the English kept her in a secular prison guarded by their own soldiers. Bishop Cauchon denied Joan's appeals to the Council of Basel and the pope, which should have stopped his proceeding. The twelve articles of accusation that summarise the court's finding contradict the already doctored court record. The illiterate defendant signed an abjuration document she did not understand under threat of immediate execution. The court substituted a different abjuration in the official record. A posthumous retrial opened after the war ended. Pope Callixtus III authorized this proceeding, also known as the "nullification trial", at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Brehal and Joan's mother Isabelle Romée. The aim of the trial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to canon law. Investigations started with an inquest by a priest, Guillaume Bouille. Brehal conducted an investigation in 1452. A formal appeal followed in November 1455. The appellate process included clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analysed testimony from 115 witnesses. Brehal drew up his final summary in June 1456, which describes Joan as a martyr and implicated the late Pierre Cauchon with heresy for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta. The court declared her innocence on 7 July 1456. Joan of Arc's religious visions have interested many people. The consensus among scholars is that her faith was sincere. She identified Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine, and Saint Michael as the source of her revelations although there is some ambiguity as to which of several identically named saints she intended. Some Catholics regard her visions as divine inspiration. Analysis of her visions is problematic since the main source of information on this topic is the condemnation trial transcript in which she defied customary courtroom procedure about a witness's oath and specifically refused to answer every question about her visions. She complained that a standard witness oath would conflict with an oath she had previously sworn to maintain confidentiality about meetings with her king. It remains unknown to what extent the surviving record may represent the fabrications of corrupt court officials or her own possible fabrications to protect state secrets. Some historians sidestep speculation about the visions by asserting that her belief in her calling is more relevant than questions about the visions' ultimate origin. Documents from her own era and historians prior to the twentieth century generally assume that she was both healthy and sane. A number of more recent scholars attempted to explain her visions in psychiatric or neurological terms. Potential diagnoses have included epilepsy, migraine, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. None of the putative diagnoses have gained consensus support because, although hallucination and religious enthusiasm can be symptomatic of various syndromes, other characteristic symptoms conflict with other known facts of Joan's life. Two experts who analyse a temporal lobe tuberculoma hypothesis in the medical journal Neuropsychobiology express their misgivings this way: "It is difficult to draw final conclusions, but it would seem unlikely that widespread tuberculosis, a serious disease, was present in this 'patient' whose life-style and activities would surely have been impossible had such a serious disease been present." In response to another such theory alleging that she suffered from bovine tuberculosis as a result of drinking unpasteurized milk, historian Régine Pernoud wrote that if drinking unpasteurized milk could produce such potential benefits for the nation, then the French government should stop mandating the pasteurization of milk. Ralph Hoffman, professor of psychology at Yale University, points out that visionary and creative states including "hearing voices" are not necessarily signs of mental illness and names her religious inspiration as a possible exception although he offers no speculation as to alternative causes (Hoffman, "Auditory Hallucinations: What's It Like Hearing Voices?" in HealthyPlace.com, 27 September 2003). Among the specific challenges that potential diagnoses such as schizophrenia face is the slim likelihood that any person with such a disorder could gain favour in the court of King Charles VII. His own father, Charles VI, was popularly known as "Charles the Mad," and much of the political and military decline that France had suffered during his reign could be attributed to the power vacuum that his episodes of insanity had produced. The previous king had believed he was made of glass, a delusion no courtier had mistaken for a religious awakening. Fears that King Charles VII would manifest the same insanity may have factored into the attempt to disinherit him at Troyes. This stigma was so persistent that contemporaries of the next generation would attribute to inherited madness the breakdown that England's King Henry VI was to suffer in 1453: Henry VI was nephew to Charles VII and grandson to Charles VI. Upon her arrival at Chinon the royal counselor Jacques Gélu cautioned, “One should not lightly alter any policy because of conversation with a girl, a peasant... so susceptible to illusions; one should not make oneself ridiculous in the sight of foreign nations....” Contrary to modern stereotypes about the Middle Ages, the court of Charles VII was shrewd and sceptical on the subject of mental health. Besides the physical rigour of her military career, which would seem to exclude many medical hypotheses, Joan of Arc displayed none of the cognitive impairment that can accompany some major mental illnesses when symptoms are present. She remained astute to the end of her life and rehabilitation trial testimony frequently marvels at her astuteness: Often they [the judges] turned from one question to another, changing about, but, notwithstanding this, she answered prudently, and evinced a wonderful memory. Her subtle replies under interrogation even forced the court to stop holding public sessions. If her visions had some medical or psychiatric origin then she would have been an exceptional case. (Compiled from various sources)You are in a crowd when you hear your name. You turn, looking for the speaker. No one meets your gaze. It dawns on you that the voice you heard must have sprung from your own mind. This foray into the uncanny is as close as most people come to experiencing auditory hallucinations or "hearing voices," a condition that affects 70% of patients with schizophrenia and 15% of patients with mood disorders such as mania or depression. For these individuals, instead of hearing just one's name, voices produce a stream of speech, often vulgar or derogatory ("You are a fat whore," "Go to hell") or a running commentary on one's most private thoughts. The compelling aura of reality about these experiences often produces distress and disrupts thought and behavior. The sound of the voice is sometimes that of a family member or someone from one's past, or is like that of no known person but has distinct and immediately recognizable features (say, a deep, growling voice). Often certain actual external sounds, such as fans or running water, become transformed into perceived speech. One patient described the recurrence of voices as akin to being "in a constant state of mental rape." In the worst cases, voices command the listener to undertake destructive acts such as suicide or assault. But hearing voices is not necessarily a sign of mental illness, so understanding the mechanics of auditory hallucinations is crucial to understanding schizophrenia and related disorders. Hallucinated voices are also known to occur during states of religious or creative inspiration. Joan of Arc described hearing the voices of saints telling her to free her country from the English. Rainer Maria Rilke heard the voice of a "terrible angel" amidst the sound of a crashing sea after living alone in a castle for two months. This experience prompted his writing the Duino Elegies. How can we understand differences between an inspired voice, an isolated instance of hearing one's own name, and the voices of the mentally ill? One answer is that "non-pathological" voices occur rarely or perhaps only once. Not so for the person with mental illness. Without treatment, these experiences recur relentlessly. Brain imaging studies have found that parts of the temporal lobe activate during these hallucinations. Our research at Yale University, as well as studies conducted at the Institute of Psychiatry in London, also detected activation in an area of the brain known as Broca's region during production of "inner speech" or verbal thought. [...] Verbal messages expressed by voices often are highly emotional. Moreover, when schizophrenia begins, these persons are often in states of extreme fear or elation. It could be that these powerful emotional states increase the propensity of the brain to produce corresponding verbal "messages." This would account for the fact that voices also emerge during states of extreme, but incidental, emotionality brought on by inspired thought, mania, depression, or ingestion of certain drugs. Here the voices disappear when the emotional states return to normal. The brains of schizophrenia sufferers may be vulnerable to becoming "stuck" in these hallucinatory states. Our hypothesis is that voices arise from different combinations of these three factors-reduced brain integration, social isolation, and high levels of emotionality. This view has become the focus of efforts to understand and help patients with mental illness quiet their minds. (Ralph Hoffman, “Hearing what others can't hear”, Professor of Psychiatry at Yale University)
French comment : À treize ans, Jeanne affirme avoir entendu les voix célestes des saintes Catherine et Marguerite et de l'archange saint Michel lui demandant d'être pieuse, de libérer le royaume de France de l'envahisseur et de conduire le dauphin sur le trône. Après beaucoup d'hésitations, à seize ans, elle se met en route. Arrivée à la ville voisine, elle demande à s'enrôler dans les troupes du dauphin. Sa demande est rejetée deux fois, mais elle revient un an plus tard et Robert de Baudricourt, capitaine de Vaucouleurs, accepte de lui donner une escorte, résigné face à la ferveur populaire de la ville où Jeanne avait acquis une petite notoriété, notamment en allant rendre visite au duc malade Charles II de Lorraine. Avant son départ pour le royaume de France, Jeanne ira se recueillir dans l'ancienne église de Saint-Nicolas-de-Port, dédiée au saint patron du duché de Lorraine.Les « Voix » que Jeanne d'Arc entendit lors de son séjour à Neufchâteau furent l'élément déclencheur de sa mission ; elles constituèrent aussi un des moyens pris par ses ennemis (Henri VI et ses juges) pour la faire monter sur le bûcher parce qu'ils la percevaient comme « une superstitieuse femme ». Vers 1425, les habitants de Domrémy durent quitter pour la première fois leur village en raison de l'arrivée des troupes bourguignonnes ; ils allèrent se réfugier à Neufchâteau. Jeanne faisait partie des réfugiés et c'est alors qu'elle entendit les « Voix » pour la toute première fois. Ces « Voix » étaient celles de Saint-Michel-l'Archange, de Sainte-Catherine et Sainte-Marguerite ; selon les dires d'Henri VI dans sa lettre à l'empereur Sigismond, Jeanne d'Arc aurait également été témoin de leur apparition et de celle de plusieurs anges. Ces « Voix » lui ordonnaient de chasser les Anglais de France et de faire sacrer Charles à Reims. Les « Voix » lui disaient aussi que cette mission lui était confiée par Dieu, ce qu'Henri VI trouva très prétentieux de sa part, et qu'elle se devait de l'accomplir. Aussi, au moment venu, « Elles » lui diraient qu'il est temps de rencontrer à Vaucouleurs le capitaine du roi, Robert de Baudricourt. Sainte-Marguerite et Sainte-Catherine lui avaient dit qu'elle serait repoussée plusieurs fois par ce dernier mais que par sa persévérance, un jour, il céderait. (Compiled from various sources)C'est un procès d'hérésie que Pierre Cauchon, et avec lui l'université de Paris, entend faire à Jeanne. De tels procès sont alors menés par l'Inquisition, instituée en 1231. Il s'agit avant tout de prouver que le roi de France a été couronné par les artifices d'une sorcière - en tout cas d'une hérétique. Les procès de sorcellerie sont rares à l'époque. il faudra attendre le XIXème siècle (1841-1849) et le travail de Jules Quicherat pour que ces pages soient enfin publiées. (Le Procès de Jeanne d’Arc, Document du XIXe siècle communiqué par ville de Loches)On peut essayer de préciser les formes extérieures de l’inspiration surnaturelle dont bénéficia Jeanne [d’Arc], en relevant les déclaratiosn successives de l’intéressée au cours du procès de condamnation. On constate en effet une évolution, allant d’une source unique ou indifférenciée d’inspiration à une pluralité de voix, d’une intervention divine transcendante à une personnalisation des saints ou saintes servant d’intermédiaires. Lors de la deuxième séance de son procès, le 22 février, Jeanne déclare avoir entendu pour la première fois, à l’âge de treize ans environ, à Domremy et dans le jardin de son père, “une voix venant de Dieu pour l’aider à se diriger”. Elle eut grand peur. La voix se fit entendre à plusieurs reprises, venant toujours “du côté droit de l’église”. Elle était accompagnée généralement d’une grande clarté; mais Jeanne, qui ne se laisse pas entraîner par l’imagination, ajoute que de ce côté il y avait toujours beaucoup de lumière, ce que confirme l’orientation. Dans cette déposition inaugurale du 22 févier, il ne s’agit donc que d’une seule voix venant de Dieu, sans indication d’intermédiaire. Toutefois elle ajoute que la troisième fois elle comprit que cette voix était celle d’un ange, sans autre précision, c’est-à-dire d’une esprit incorporel. Cette voix, elle continue de l’entendre, deux ou trois fois par semaine, avant de partir pour Chinon, puis pendant le trajet. Cette voix lui a enseigné, “docuit”, ce qu’elle devait faire. Aussi l’un des articles du libelle d’accusation, le trentre-quatrième, fait-il interroger Jeanne sur la “doctrina” ainsi proposée, et de même le troisième des douze articles retenus contre elle mentionne-t-il cette “doctrine” de la voix, identifiée alors avec celle de Saint-Michel. La pluralité des voix pourrait paraître cependant mentionnée incidemment dans la séance même du 22 février : Jeanne déclare que, si elle était dans un bois, elle entendait des voix; mais aussitôt après elle poursuit en mentionnant cette “voix venant de la part de Dieu”. Lors de la séance suivante, le 24 février, Jeanne continue de ne citer qu’une voix, entendue la veille et le jour même. Aux juges qui lui demandent si “cette voix”, accompagnée d’apparition, est d’un ange, ou de saints, ou vient directement de Dieu, elle demande un délai pour répondre, de crainte de déplaire à “ces voix”. Au début de la quatrième séance, le 27 février, Jeanne déclare avoir entendu de nouveau la voix, qui lui a dit de répondre hardiment. Aussi, interrogée encore une fois sur la nature de cette voix, elle répond qu’il s’agissait de sainte Catherine et de sainte Marguerite, et qu’elle a déjà fait la réponse lors de l’interrogatoire de Poitiers, en 1429; elle ajoute que ces deux saintes ont accepté de la diriger il y a bien sept ans, soit vers 1425. Ensuite, aussitôt après, elle déclare avoir reçu un grand réconfort de saint Michel, qui lui a parlé le premier, depuis qu’elle eut environ treize ans. On peut constater quel fut le processus, relativement lent et hésitant, de l’identification des voix. Les visions semblent n’être que peu à peu devenues des apparitions concrètes de saints ou de saintes. Mais ces incarnations, peut-on dire, sont des aspects secondaires de la vie mystique de Jeanne. Probablement lui était-il difficile de parler de l’inexprimable. D’ailleurs elle a toujours été réticente pour révéler les traits matériels du surnaturel : pressée de questions, elle déclara par exemple ne rien savoir de l’aspect de saint Michel, de ses cheveux, de ses vêtements, bien qu’elle eût affirmé auparavant l’avoir vu de ses “yeux corporels” aussi bien qu’elle voit les juges l’interrogeant. (In “Procès en nullité de la condamnation de Jeanne d’Arc”, étude par la Société de l’Histoire de France, Tome V, par Pierre Duparc, pp. 165-166 Paris : Klincksieck, 1988)
Original excerpt 1 : « Le Procès de Jeanne D’Arc.Jeudi 22 février.[...]Jean BEAUPERE - Quel était votre âge quand vous avez quitté la maison devotre père ? - J - De mon âge je ne saurais déposer. - B - Dans votre jeunesse avez-vous appris quelque métier ? - J - Oui, à coudre panneaux de lin, et à filer, et je ne crains femme de Rouen pour filer et coudre.[...] - B - Quand avez-vous commencé à ouïr ce que vous nommez vos voix ? - J - Quand j'eus l'âge d'environ treize ans, j'eus une voix de Dieu pour m'aider à me gouverner. Et la première fois, j'eus grand'peur. Et vint cette voix environ l'heure de midi, au temps de l'été, dans le jardin de mon père. Je n'avais pas jeûné la veille. J'ouïs la voix du côté droit de l'église, et rarement je l'ouïs sans clarté.[...] - B - Comment était cette voix ? - J - Il me semblait que c'était une digne voix, et je crois que cette voix était envoyé de par Dieu. Lorsque j'eus ouï par trois fois cette voix, je connus que c'était la voix d'un ange. Cette voix m'a toujours bien gardée, et je comprenais bien cette voix. - B - Quel enseignement vous donnait cette voix pour le salut de votre âme? - J - Elle m'enseigna à bien me conduire, à fréquenter l'église.[...] La voix me disait de venir en France, et je ne pouvais plus durer où j'étais. Cette voix me disait encore que je lèverais le siège mis devant la cité d'Orléans. Elle me dit en outre d'aller à Robert de Baudricourt, dans la ville de Vaucouleurs, et qu'il me baillerait des gens pour aller avec moi.[...] - B - Vites-vous quelque ange au-dessus de votre roi ? - J - Pardonnez-moi. Passez outre. - B - Votre roi eut-il des révélations ? - J - Avant que mon roi me mît à l'oeuvre, Il eut plusieurs apparitions et belles révélations. - B - Quelles apparitions et révélations eut votre roi ? - J - Je ne vous le dirai point. Vous n'aurez pas encore réponse. Mais envoyez vers le roi et il vous le dira. - B - Pourquoi votre roi vous a-t-il reçue ? - J - La voix m'avait promis que mon roi me recevrait assez tôt après que je serais venue vers lui. Ceux de mon parti connurent cette voix, je le sais bien. Mon roi et plusieurs autres ouïrent et virent les voix qui venaient à moi. - B - Entendez-vous souvent cette voix ? - J - Il n'est jour que ne l'entende, et même j'en ai bien besoin. [...]Samedi 3 mars.CAUCHON - Avez-vous su par révélation que vous vous échapperiez ? - J - Cela ne touche point votre procès. Voulez-vous que je parle contre moi ? - C - Les voix vous en ont-elles dit quelque chose ? - J - Cela n'est point de votre procès. Je m'en rapporte à mon Seigneur. Et si tout vous concernait, je vous dirais tout. Par ma foi, je ne sais le jour ni l'heure où je m'échapperai. - C - Les voix vous en ont-elles dit quelque chose en général ? - J - Oui, vraiment, les voix m'ont dit que je serai délivrée, mais je ne sais le jour ni l'heure, et qu'hardiment je fasse bon visage. [...] - C - N'avez-vous point levé d'enfant aux fonts baptismaux ? - J - A Troyes, j'en levai un. Mais de Reims je n'en ai point de mémoire, ni de Château-Thierry. J'en levai deux aussi à Saint-Denis. Et volontiers mettais nom aux fils, "Charles", pour l'honneur de mon roi, et aux filles, "Jeanne". [...]Samedi 10 mars : Dans la prison.La Fontaine - Depuis ce lieu de Melun, ne vous fut-il point dit par vos dites voix que vous seriez prise [à Compiègne] ? - J - Oui, par plusieurs fois, et comme tous les jours. Et à mes voix, je requérais, quand je serais prise, d'être bientôt morte, sans long travail de prison. Et elles me dirent de prendre tout en gré, et qu'ainsi il fallait faire. Mais ne me dirent point l'heure, et si je l'eusse sue, je n'y fusse pas allée. J'avais plusieurs fois demandé à savoir l'heure, mais elles ne me la dirent point. - LF - Si vos voix vous eussent commandé de faire la sortie et signifié que vous seriez prise, y fussiez-vous allée ? - J - Si j'eusse su l'heure, et que je dusse être prise, je n'y fusse point allée volontiers ; toutefois j'eusse fait leur commandement à la fin, quelque chose qui me dût être advenue. - LF - Quand vous fîtes cette sortie de Compiègne, avez-vous eu voix de partir et de faire cette sortie ? - J - Ce jour, je ne sus point ma prise et je n'eus d'autre commandement de sortir. Mais toujours il m'avait été dit que je fusse prisonnière. [...]Lundi 12 mars : Dans la prison.La Fontaine - De ces visions, n'avez-vous point parlé à votre curé ou autre homme d'église ? - J - Non, seulement à Robert de Baudricourt et à mon roi. Je ne fus pas contrainte de mes voix à les celer : mais je redoutais moult de les révéler, par crainte des Bourguignons et qu'ils n'empêchassent mon voyage ; et, tout spécialement, je redoutais moult mon père qu'il ne m'empêchât de faire mon voyage. - LF - Croyiez-vous bien faire de partir sans le congé de votre père ou mère, puisqu'on doit honorer père et mère ? - J - En toutes autres choses, je leur ai bien obéi, excepté en ce départ. Mais depuis, je leur en ai écrit, et ils m'ont pardonné. [...] - LF - Fut-ce à la requête de Robert de Baudricourt ou de vous que vous prîtes l'habit d'homme ? - J - Ce fut par moi, et non à la requête d'homme au monde. - LF - La voix vous commanda-t-elle de prendre habit d'homme ? - J - Tout ce que j'ai fait de bien, je l'ai fait par le commandement des voix. Quant à cet habit, j'en répondrai une autre fois. Pour le présent, je n'en suis point avisée. Mais demain, j'en répondrai. - LF - Prenant habit d'homme, pensiez-vous mal faire ? - J - Non, et encore de présent si j'étais en l'autre parti et en cet habit d'homme, il me semble que ce serait un des grand biens de France de faire comme je faisais avant ma prise. [...]Lundi 28 mai : Dans la prison. Procès de relapse et dernier interrogatoire de Jeanne.Cauchon - Quand et pourquoi avez-vous repris l'habit d'homme ? - J - J'ai naguère repris l'habit d'homme et laissé l'habit de femme. - C - Pourquoi l'avez-vous pris ? Qui vous l'a fait prendre ? - J - Je l'ai pris de ma propre volonté. Personne ne m'y a contrainte ; j'aime mieux l'habit d'homme que de femme. - C - Vous aviez juré et promis de ne pas reprendre l'habit d'homme. - J - Je n'ai jamais entendu faire serment de ne pas reprendre l'habit d'homme. - C - Pour quelle cause l'avez-vous repris ? - J - Parce qu'il me semble plus licite et convenable d'avoir l'habit d'homme, autant que je serai avec des hommes, que de porter l'habit de femme. Et en outre, je l'ai repris parce qu'on n'a pas tenu ce qu'on m'avait promis : que j'irai à la messe, et recevrais mon Sauveur, et que je serai mise hors de fers. Les Anglais m'ont fait ou fait faire en la prison beaucoup de torts et de violences quand j'étais vêtue d'habits de femme. (elle pleure) J'ai fait cela pour la défense de ma pudeur [...]. - C - Depuis jeudi dernier, avez-vous ouï les voix de sainte-Catherine et sainte-Marguerite ? - J - Oui - C - Que vous ont-elles dit ? - J - Que Dieu me mandait par elles que je m'étais mise en grand danger de perdition, parce que j'avais consenti à faire cette abjuration et renonciation, pour sauver ma vie ; et que je me damnais pour sauver ma vie. Avant ce jeudi, mes voix m'avaient dit ce que je devais faire, et ce que j'ai fait. Elles m'avaient dit, [quand je serai sur] en l'échafaud, de répondre hardiment au prêcheur ; il disait que j'avais fait plusieurs choses que j'ai jamais faites ; Si ce n'était Dieu qui m'avait envoyée, je me damnerais, mais véritablement c'est Dieu qui m'a envoyée...[...] Tout ce que j'ai dit et rétracté, je l'ai fait seulement pour la crainte du feu. [...] Jamais je n'ai fait quelque chose contre Dieu ou contre la foi, quoi que l'on m'ait commandé de rétracter ; et ce qui était contenu dans la cédule d'abjuration, je ne l'ai jamais compris. Je n'entends jamais rien rétracter, si ce n'était qu'il plût à Dieu que je le rétracte. Si les juges le veulent, je reprendrai l'habit de femme. Du surplus je n'en ferai autre chose. - C - Vous êtes donc hérétique obstinée et rechue. - J - Si vous, Messeigneurs de l'Eglise, m'eussiez menée et gardée en vos prisons, par aventure ne me fût-il pas advenu ainsi. - C - Cela entendu, nous n'avons plus qu'à procéder plus outre, selon ce qui est de droit et de raison. » (Le Procès de Jeanne d’Arc, Document du XIXe siècle communiqué par ville de Loches)
Original excerpt 2 : « Afterwards she declared that at the age of thirteen she had a voice from God to help her and guide her. And the first time she was much afraid. And this voice came towards noon, in summer, in her father's garden: and the said Jeanne had [not] fasted on the preceding day. She heard the voice on her right, in the direction of the church; and she seldom heard it without a light. This light came from the same side as the voice, and generally there was a great light. When she came to France she often heard the voice. Asked how she could see the light of which she spoke, since it was at the side, she made no reply, and went on to other things. She said that if she was in a wood she easily heard the voices come to her. It seemed to her a worthy voice, and she believed it was sent from God; when she heard the voice a third time she knew that it was the voice of an angel. She said also that this voice always protected her well and that she understood it well. Asked what instruction this voice gave her for the salvation of her soul: she said it taught her to be good and to go to church often; and it told her that she must come to France. And, Jeanne added, Beaupère would not learn from her, this time, in what form that voice appeared to her. She further said that this voice told her once or twice a week that she should leave and come to France, and that her father knew nothing of her leaving. She said that the voice told her to come, and she could no longer stay where she was; and the voice told her again that she should raise the siege of the city of Orleans. She said moreover that the voice told her that she, Jeanne, should go to Robert de Baudricourt, in the town of Vaucouleurs of which he was captain, and he would provide an escort for her. And the said Jeanne answered that she was a poor maid, knowing nothing of riding or fighting. She said she went to an uncle of hers, and told him she wanted to stay with him for some time; and she stayed there about eight days. And she told her uncle she must go to the said town of Vaucouleurs, and so her uncle took her. [...] Then, at our order, she was questioned by the distinguished doctor Jean Beaupère above-mentioned, who first asked her when she had last taken food and drink. She answered that since yesterday noon she had not taken either. Asked when she had heard the voice come to her, she answered: "I heard it yesterday and to-day." Asked at what hour yesterday she had heard this voice, she answered that she had heard it three times: once in the morning, once at vespers, and once when the Ave Maria was rung in the evening. And often she heard it more frequently than she said. Asked what she was doing yesterday morning when the voice came to her, she said she was sleeping and the Voice awakened her. Asked if the voice woke her by touching her on the arm, she answered that it was without touching her. Asked if the voice was actually in the room, she said she did not know, but it was in the castle. Asked if she did not thank it and kneel down, she answered hat she thanked it, but she was sitting on the bed, and she put her hands together; and this was after she asked counsel of it. Whereupon the voice told her to answer boldly. Asked what the voice had said when she was awakened, she answered that she asked the voice to counsel her in her replies, telling the voice to beseech therein the counsel of Our Lord. And the voice told her to answer boldly and God would comfort her. Asked if it had not spoken certain words to her before she questioned it, she replied that the voice spoke certain words, but she did not understand them all. However, when she awakened from her sleep, the voice told her to answer boldly. Then she said to us, the aforementioned bishop: "You say that you are my judge; take good heed of what you do, because, in truth, I am sent by God, and you put yourself in great peril," in French 'en grant dangier.' Asked if the voice sometimes varied in its counsel, she answered that she had never found it utter two contrary opinions. She said also that that night she had heard it tell her to answer boldly. Asked whether the voice had forbidden her to answer everything she was asked, she said: I will not answer you that. I have revelations concerning the king which I shall not tell you. Asked if the voice had forbidden her to tell of the revelations, she answered: "I have not been advised upon that. Give me a fortnight and I will answer you." And as she had again asked for a delay in her reply, she said: "If the voice forbade me, what would you say?" Asked again if that had been forbidden her [by the voice], she replied: "Believe me, it was not men who forbade me." She said that she would not answer that day; and that she does not know if she ought to reply, or not, until it has been revealed to her. She said she firmly believes, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith and that the Lord redeemed us from the pains of hell, that this voice comes from God, and by His command. Asked whether this voice, which she says appears to her, comes as an angel, or directly from God, or whether it is the voice of one of the saints, she answered: "This voice comes from God; I believe I do not tell you everything about it; and I am more afraid of failing the voices by saying what is displeasing to them, than of answering you. For this question, I beseech you to grant me a delay." Asked if she believes it displeasing to God to speak the truth, she answered: "My voices told me to say certain things to the king, and not to you." She saw that that night the voice told her many things for the good of the king, which she wished he might know forthwith, even if she had to go without wine till Easter! For, as she said, he would eat the more happily for it. Asked if she could not so influence the voice that it would obey her and take news to her king: she answered she did not know whether the voice would obey her, unless it were God's will, and God consented thereto. "And if it please God," she said, "He will be able to send revelations to the king; and with this I shall be well pleased." Asked why this voice no longer speaks with the king, as it did when Jeanne was in his presence, she answered that she did not know, if it were not the will of God. And she added that but for the will of God she could do nothing. Asked if her counsel revealed to her that she should escape from prison, she answered: "Must I tell you that?" Asked whether that night the voice had not counseled and advised her upon what she should reply, she said that if the voice revealed such things she did not understand them. Asked whether, on the two last days that she heard the voices, she had seen a light, she answered that the light comes in the name of the voice. Asked if she saw anything else with the voices, she answered: "I will not tell you everything, I have not leave, nor does my oath touch on that. This voice is good and worthy; and I am not bound to answer you." She asked that the points on which she did not straightway answer should be given her in writing. Asked whether the voice, of which she asked counsel, had sight and eyes, she answered: "You will not learn that yet"; and said that there was a saying among little children, "Men are sometimes hanged for telling the truth.”. » (THE TRIAL OF JEANNE D'ARC, TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH , FROM THE ORIGINAL LATIN AND FRENCH DOCUMENTS, BY W. P. BARRETT, TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY COLEY TAYLOR AND RUTH H. KERR, GOTHAM HOUSE, INC., 1932, pp. 49-52)
Urls : http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/joanofarc-trial.html (last visited ) http://www.stjoan-center.com/Trials/null13.html (last visited ) http://www.healthyplace.com/thought-disorders/articles/auditory-hallucinations-whats-it-like-hearing-voices/menu-id-64/ (last visited ) http://www.france-pittoresque.com/anecdotes/9.htm (last visited )

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