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1881 __ Telephone concert - Live telephone broadcasts — « Hallom »
Tivadar Puskás (1844-1893)
Comment : In 1881 at the electrotechnical section of the World Fair in Paris Tivadar Puskás was responsible for the presentation of the Edison Company. The exhibition also introduced the General Telephone Company of Paris. For this purpose Puskás organized the first "live broadcast". He broadcast a performance from the Paris Opera to a room at the exhibition where 16 listeners were able to hear the performance on earphones. The scheme [...] shows the arrangement of receivers and transmitters at the Paris Opera broadcast. Later he broadcast Erkel's opera "László Hunyadi" from the National Theatre at a ball held in the Vigadó at Budapest on 4 February, 1882. These "telephone broadcasts" were enjoyed only by a limited number of listeners. (Compiled from various sources)In 1881 at the World Fair in Paris Puskás presented "Jumbo", a giant 27-ton dynamo of Edison's company, the phonograph and electric lighting. Jumbo supplied electricity to 1,000-1,200 light bulbs with tremendous success. Puskás was also interested in the telephone newsreader, i.e. the idea of transmission to several stations at the same time. When on the exhibition he has shown the General Telephone Company of Paris he organized the first "live broadcast". He broadcast a performance from the Paris Opera to a room at the exhibition where 16 listeners were able to hear the performance on earphones. On February 14th, 1882, at the spring festival organised in the building of the Vigadó (Municipal Concert Hall) of Pest he broadcasts Erkel's opera "László Hunyadi" from the National Theatre. But at this time only a limited number of listeners could enjoy the broadcast. In order to make it possible to listen to it on innumerable receivers at the same time, the sound had to be amplified. Puskás's sound multiplicator, a forerunner of today's amplifying valve served for this purpose. After several unsuccessful business Tivadar Puskás, poor and ill, returned to Budapest, where , the Budapest Telephone Company, Puskás Tivadar and Co. almost went bankrupt. Fortunately the Minister of Industry and Trade who comprehended the potentialities of the telephone, took the telephone network into public ownership, and rented it to Puskás. Further enhancement, therefore, was supported by the state. After Puskás founded the telephone exchange of the city of Budapest, he invented the forerunner of the radio, the telephone broadcaster. On February 15th, 1893, for the first time in the world, the "speaking newspaper" began to speak in Hungary, in Budapest. In the first period the telephone newsreader did not have independent wires, the subscribers requested connection from the telephone exchange and they could listen to permanent broadcasting from 9 in the morning till 9 in the evening on the telephone. Later individual wires were laid down for the telephone newsreader. Today's wired radios are based on the structural elements of Tivadar Puskás's telephone newsreader. A month later the telephone broadcast released the sad news that Tivadar Puskás died of heart attack, at the age of 49. (Compiled from various sources)Tivadar Puskás worked in Edison's Menlo Park laboratory from autumn 1876 till summer 1877, and was subsequently appointed European representative of the Edison Company. In London, he promoted the phonograph by staging numerous presentations and shows. In 1878 he moved his seat to Paris where he directed the construction work of the first Paris telephone network. Since he was too busy, the European Edison Telephone Company appointed in his stead his brother Ferenc to act as representative for Austria-Hungary. When Ferenc Puskás fell ill, Tivadar Puskás took over the completed Budapest telephone network in 1883, but was forced to give it into state ownership in 1887 because of his debts, retaining, however, the position of director of Tivadar Puskás's Rental Company of the Budapest State Telephone Network. In 1888 and 1889 he made new improvements to the network. In 1892 he took out patents in 18 countries on his Telephone News Service (Telefonhírmondó) called "New procedure for the organization and establishment of telephone news service". The Budapest Telephone News Service started commercial operation on February 15, 1893. (Postamúzeum Budapest)According to Edison, "Tivadar Puskas was the first person to suggest the idea of a telephone exchange". Puskás's idea finally became a reality in 1877 in Boston. It was then that the Hungarian word "hallom" "I hear you" was used for the first time in a telephone conversation when, on hearing the voice of the person at the other end of the line, Puskás shouted "hallom". (Compiled from various sources)
French comment : Pionnier du téléphone, il initie le premier central téléphonique aux Etats-Unis en 1877. On dit depuis que le fait de dire "allo" en décrochant le combiné vient en réalité du hongrois "hallom" (je vous entends) que Puskás s'écria quand pour la première fois il entendit quelqu'un au bout du fil. Il réalisa ensuite en 1879 à Paris le premier central téléphonique d´Europe, puis créa à Budapest en 1893 le théâtrophone, devancier de la radioduffusion. (Consulat de Hongrie)Le mot allô ou allo est une interjection servant à initier une conversation téléphonique au début d'un appel par téléphone. Les dictionnaires français, à la fois le dictionnaire Larousse, et le dictionnaire Robert font remonter l'origine de ce mot à la déformation du mot d'origine anglo-américaine utilisé pour la mise en relation entre personnes : hallo venu de halloo, salutation prononcée au début des conversations dans le pays d'origine du téléphone. Ce 'hallo' perdit ensuite son 'h' pour devenir allô ou allo, la francisation de ce mot en « allô » datant de 1890. L'origine du mot « haloo » anglais est incertaine. Plusieurs explications en ont été données. Il remonterait à très loin, aux bergers normands installés en Angleterre après l'invasion de Guillaume le Conquérant au XIe siècle, bergers qui s'appelaient ou rassemblaient leurs troupeaux par des 'halloo' (l'anglo-normand 'halloer' signifiait "poursuivre en criant"). « Allô » viendrait donc de Hallow, qui est également une salutation que les marins britanniques se lançaient d'un navire à l'autre. Selon d'autres sources, l'onomatopée « Allô ! » viendrait de l'expression hongroise « hallom", qui signifierait « Je vous entends », employée par Tivadar Puskás, pionnier du téléphone et inventeur du central téléphonique, lors de l’entrée en service de la première ligne téléphonique, en avril 1877. La légende raconte que Thomas Edison, l'inventeur du télégraphe et du phonographe, fut le premier à avoir utilisé « hello » au téléphone. (Compiled from various sources)
Urls : http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/puskas.html (last visited ) http://cms.consulat-hongrie-mulhouse.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=125&Itemid=135 (last visited ) http://www.omikk.bme.hu/archivum/angol/htm/puskas_t.htm (last visited ) http://www.postamuzeum.hu/eng/exhibitions/gallery/8/1230.html (last visited )

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