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1867 __ Exposition Universelle, Paris
Comment : The classification system of the 1867 exposition universelle recognized ten fundamental divisions of human endeavor. Each of these ten groups was further divided into classes, or subgroups : Group I.works of art (subdivided into five classes) -- Group II.apparatus and application of the liberal arts (eight classes) -- Group III.furniture and other objects for use in dwellings (thirteen classes) -- Group IV.clothing, including fabrics and other objects worn upon the person (thirteen classes) -- Group V.industrial products, raw and manufactured, of mining forestry, etc. (seven classes) -- Group VI.apparatus and processes used in the common arts (twenty classes) -- Group VII.food, fresh or preserved, in various states of preparation (seven classes) -- Group VIII.livestock and specimens of agricultural buildings (nine classes) -- Group IX.live produce and specimens of horticultural works (six classes) -- Group X.articles whose special purpose was meant to improve the physical and moral conditions of the people (seven classes) -- Group X.articles whose special purpose was meant to improve the physical and moral conditions of the people (seven classes) -- The most striking feature of the classification system was Group X. Products in this category were arranged not by national origin or nature of material, but by the intentions of their creators. Emperor Napoleon himself entered a design for a workers' housing project in the competition, and was awarded a grand prize. That the Emperor should win a grand prize surprised no one, of course; but it was a matter of universal comment that the Emperor had deigned to enter at all. Such an act clearly gave the signal that France, though the personage of the Emperor, set great store by this "physical and moral improvement" category. Group X represents the "bon marché "(bargain) classification of the 1855 exposition carried to the next higher power. These special categories clearly represent the legacy of Bonapartist reform, and the conviction of the exposition commissioners that international exhibitions should do more than promote rivalry between businesses, nations, or cultures, do more than educate or entertain. If future expositions could persuade the nations of the world to dedicate themselves to the physical and moral improvement of the human race, one of the major ideals of the Emperor and his commissioners would be fulfilled. Since it was here, in the heavy machinery section, that each nation put forth its largest and technologically most impressive inventions for the control and application of mechanical force, this gallery constituted the main arena of the 1867 exposition universelle. It was here that the United States made its first truly impressive showing as a force to be contended with in future industrial development. Among the Americans' proudest achievements was the telegraphy exhibit, under the supervision of Samuel F.B. Morse, and Chicago's "Lake Water Tunnel" exhibit. In previous world's fairs, the United States had little serious attention from the leading European nations. In 1867, though, American manufacturers were determined to make their presence felt, even though they knew they ranked below France, Prussia, and England as major industrial forces. Grand prizes went to Cyrus Field and the Anglo-American Transatlantic Telegraph Company; David Hughes, for his novel printing telegraph; C.H. McCormick for his reaping machines; and to the United States Sanitary Commission, for the exhibit of ambulances and other materials used for the relief of those wounded in war [Four American were created Chevaliers of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor of France, a title of great distinction: McCormick; Walter Wood, for his mowing machines; Elias Howe, for his sewing machines; and C.F. Chickering, for his company's widely-praised pianos. American awards, all totaled, amounted to 291 prizes, medals, and honorable mentions]. (. (In "EMPIRE OF AUTUMN - The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867" by Arthur Chandler, Reproduced from World's Fair magazine, Volume VI, Number 3, Copyright 1986, World's Fair, Inc.)
French comment : La seconde exposition universelle, dite Exposition universelle d'Art et d'industrie, se tient du 1er avril au 3 novembre 1867 sur le Champ-de-Mars. 41 pays sont présents pour l'exposition. Paris tout neuf est en fête, les grands travaux viennent de se terminer. L'exposition universelle marque l'apogée du second empire et le triomphe du libéralisme saint-simonien. (. (Compiled from various sources)
Urls : http://charon.sfsu.edu/publications/ParisExpositions/1867EXPO.html (last visited ) http://hector.ucdavis.edu/Sdc/Programs/Pr040.htm (last visited ) http://cnum.cnam.fr/fSER/8XAE149.html (last visited )

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