NMSAT :: Networked Music & SoundArt Timeline

1865 __ The first fax
Comment : The first fax is sent from Lyon to Paris. (Matthew Ciolek)In 1863, the French Legislature and Council of State adopted texts authorizing the official exploitation of an initial line between Paris and Marseille, while across the Channel, Caselli obtained authorization for the experimental use of a line between London and Liverpool over a four-month period, in order to build up a public service. In 1865 the pantelegraph started his duty between Paris and Lyon, duty which ended in 1870 following the defeat of Sedan, having been planned new lines. The pantelegraph system transmited nearly 5,000 faxes in the first year. Even Russia was interested in his Pantelegraph, but instead of creating a public service, it was used to send messages between the two imperial residences of St. Petersburg and Moscow. However, Caselli's system seems to have suffered from a number of deficiencies, and although it continued in use for some years on the telegraph lines around Le Havre and Lyons, it did not realise the hopes of its promoters, as the transmissions were often illegible. Probably this was because of the continuing difficulty of keeping the transmitter and receiver in synchronization.
French comment : Le 5 février 1865 fut inaugurée au bureau central des télégraphes, rue de Grenelle, une salle réservée à quatre Pantélégraphes Caselli reliant Paris au Havre et à Lyon. Ce procédé remarquable repose sur la lecture en lignes parallèles du document original, écrit sur une feuille métallique au moyen d’une encre non conductrice de l’électricité, par un stylet qui, à chaque rencontre avec cette encre, transmet une impulsion à un stylet de réception qui balaie lui-même simultanément une feuille de papier sensible et la marque d’un tracé correspondant. Malgré un vif succès de curiosité initial, ce procédé tomba dans l’oubli jusqu’à l’apparition du bélinographe permettant la lecture du document par une cellule photo-électrique. (Piero Gondolo Della Riva)
Source : Swerdlow, J.L. (1995), “Information Revolution”, In National Geographic, Oct. 1995, 188, pp. 5-37.
Source : Ciolek, T. Matthew (2000), “Global Networking: a Timeline”, electronic publication, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, 2000.
Source : Verne, Jules (1863), “Paris au XX° Siècle”, Hachette, Le Cherche Midi éditeur, Le Livre de Poche, 1994, p. 173.
Urls : http://www.ciolek.com/GLOBAL/1800.html (last visited ) http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/history/caselli.html (last visited )

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